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Discovery of Concentration Camps file photo [2542]

Discovery of Concentration Camps and the Holocaust

24 Jul 1944 - 29 Apr 1945


ww2dbaseDiscovery of Concentration Camps

ww2dbaseOn 24 Jul 1944, the Soviet army marched near Lublin in Poland as their campaign westward continued. They came across the abandoned Majdanek concentration camp, whose prisoners already had been herded off on a death march away from the advancing Soviet troops. Majdanek was burned in attempt to mask its presence as the Germans retreated from the region but the remains of gas chambers were evident. This was the first major concentration camp discovered by those fighting against Germany, and the evidence found was a brutal confirmation of the rumors of the existence of such camps. In the following weeks, Soviet troops liberated the abandoned camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka.

ww2dbaseOn 31 Aug 1944, the Nazi German SS organization began evacuating the Natzweiler-Struthof camp, herding its prisoners on a death march that resulted in 2,000 deaths en route to the Dachau camps. In the following months, as the concentration camps were evacuated by their commandants, the prisoners were engaged in brutal death marches against the increasingly cold terrain. The prisoners were often forced to march miles without adequate clothing or travel long distances in open rail cars for days.

ww2dbaseOne of the most brutal camp evacuations was the death march from Auschwitz camp in Jan 1945 where 15,000 prisoners died on during the death march. On 27 Jan 1945, Soviet troops from the 100th Infantry Division discovered Auschwitz 11 days after the Germans abandoned it, and found remnants of what had been a terrible nightmare: 348,820 men's suits and 836,515 women's dresses neatly folded, pyramids of dentures and eyeglasses, and seven tons of women's hair.

ww2dbaseIn the west, camps were discovered and liberated by the western Allies as well, including the Bergen-Belsen camp on 15 Apr 1945. Dwight Eisenhower toured the remnants of a concentration camp near the town of Gotha in Apr 1945 and recorded his experience that was indescribable with words: "I have never felt able to describe my emotional reactions when I first came face to face with indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard of every shred of decency.... I have never at any other time experienced an equal sense of shock." On 29 Apr, members of the American 101st Airborne Division discovered a labor camp that was part of the Dachau complex, the first concentration camp established, near Landsberg at the foothills of the Alps. "The memory of the starved, dazed men," remembered Richard Winters of Company E of the 506th Regiment, "who dropped their eyes and heads when we looked at them through the chain-link fence, in the same manner that a beaten, mistreated dog would cringe, leave feelings that cannot be described and will never be forgotten."

ww2dbaseThe Holocaust

ww2dbaseAnti-Semitism sentiment was rampant in Europe long before the Nazi Party came to power, and remained a dark stain through the modern age. Meanwhile, a small number of academics and pseudo-scientists, Karl Binding among them, began to circulate the idea that it would be merciful to kill those who were mortally wounded, terminally ill, mentally ill, or in a vegetative state. Communism rapidly rose in the final years of WW1 and expanded in influence greatly in the 1920s and 1930s, which drove fear in Central and Western Europe.

ww2dbaseThe Nazi Party politicized all of the above as they rose to power in Germany. Although it was best known for the persecution of Jews, Nazi Germany's first brutal internal campaign targeted political enemies and not Jews specifically. As early as 1933, people deemed as potential enemies of the Nazi Party were placed in extra-judicial concentration camps, where German laws otherwise protecting the rights of German citizens did not exist. In about 1937, this powerful political weapon began to be used against targeted groups of Jews, but even through the early years of the European War, German Jews who held jobs deemed critical for the war-preparation effort were allowed to remain in society, albeit as a second class citizen. For a period of about five years, certain Nazi leaders, Hermann G├Âring among them, understanding that anti-Semitism was rampant in Poland much like in Germany, attempted to anti-Semitism as a common cause to recruit Poland as a temporary ally against the rise of communism, but those efforts failed. As the German leaders decided that Poland must be under German influence one way or another, German troops invaded in Sep 1939. Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads followed German troops and conducted mass killings, generally by gunfire over trenches and pits. Much like what had taken place in Germany in the mid-1930s, the focus were not Jews. The primary mission of the Einsatzgruppen were to massacre influential Polish citizens in the realms of politics, clergy, education, and nobility; the killing of Polish Jews, Romani people, and the mentally ill were indeed conducted, but these killings were not considered part of the main effort, and the number of victims were indeed much smaller by contrast. In the fall of 1941, as German troops moved into the Soviet Union in a military campaign against their former allies, Einsatzgruppen again followed the regular troops, massacring potential political enemies. During this phase of the Holocaust, the Judeo-communism myth of perpetuated, ie. the false notion that Jews were responsible for communism, thus leading to a much higher number of atrocities against Jews, but the main underlying cause was still political, as the main targets of the Einsatzgruppen and a number of German Army rear units were still selected for their politics rather than for their racial makeup. Also around this time, Jews in Germany and previous occupied countries (Austria, Czechoslovakia, etc.) began to be rounded up for deportation to concentration camps and ghettos.

ww2dbaseMargot Rosenthal of Berlin was able to hide from the Gestapo agents until 5 Dec 1941 before she was found and forced to relocate to a ghetto in the Bavaria region in southern Germany. "Send us something to eat, we are starving," she wrote her friend Ruth Andreas-Friedrich in Berlin. "Don't forget me. I cry every day."

ww2dbaseOn 20 Jan 1942, the Wannsee Conference made the complete elimination of European Jews a state policy, with the responsibility given to Reinhard Heydrich. The policy was known as the "final solution of the Jewish problem". In the same month, the concentration camp at Chelmno in northern Poland began its operations which solely dedicated to the systematic extermination of its prisoners with the experience the Nazi party had already accumulated by experimenting methods of execution with 50,000 mentally deficient or terminally ill Germans. This marked the next phase of the Holocaust, both from the perspective of killing method and the makeup of victims. Prior to this point in time, the many thousands of victims were primarily being massacred by gunfire over trenches and pits, as previously noted, with some others being killed by asphyxiation via carbon monoxide inhalation using mobile gassing vans. From this point on, killing became industrialized and impersonal. While gassing vans killed about 75 victims each time, gas chambers at concentration camps and extermination camps could kill upwards of 1,000 victims each time. As far as the victims were concerned, the early phase of the Holocaust saw the death of Jews for each victim's potential opposition to the Nazi regime; meanwhile, a great number of non-Jews were killed alongside Jews. In this next phase of the Holocaust, the Jews were targeted as a racial group in addition to being victims of Nazi German politics.

ww2dbase"We shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews", said German leader Adolf Hitler on 22 Feb 1942 to a group of close associates. "The Jews must vanish from the face of the Earth", later proclaimed the Nazi governor of occupied Poland Hans Frank. The work the Jews left behind, they reasoned, would be filled by imported workers from the conquered nations.

ww2dbaseIt was in camps like Chelmno that between eight to eleven million Jews, Jehovah's Witnesses, prisoners of war, Romani, the disabled, homosexuals, political dissidents, and communists were murdered. Approximately half of those perished were Jews, and half of them were Polish Jews.

ww2dbaseFried. Krupp and the Holocaust

ww2dbaseWhile the Holocaust was a state-run atrocity, businesses were not guilt-free. Large manufacturers such as I. G. Farben of Germany and H. Rella of Austria, plus many others, employed slave labor conscripted directly from the concentration camps. Fried. Krupp, a German munitions firm, was by far the most heinous offender. Krupp acquired industries in the conquered countries by highly questionable means from the first days of the European War, beginning its downward spiral in morality. In France, Yugoslav Jew Robert Rothschild's tractor factory in France was given to Krupp on 27 Aug 1942 (and Rothschild was eventually murdered at Auschwitz). But that was only to be shadowed by the firm's later atrocities. Since 1940, Krupp had been permanently housing slave labor. At first, they were treated with apologetic hospitality. Forced laborers arrived on furnished trains, they were given fresh sandwiches and sausages upon arrival, and Krupp employees helped them move their luggage into their bunkers. To most efficiently exploit the slave labor, in the summer of 1942, Auschwitz Jews were brought to build Krupp's Berthawerk factory in Silesia. In Berlin, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris protested, arguing the enlistment of slave laborers violated the clauses of the Geneva Convention and the Hague agreements, but the statements by Canaris and others fell on deaf ears. Things changed for the worse as time went on. Not only the luxuries disappeared, but the basic necessities disappeared one by one as well. Before long, the slaves from concentration camps were wearing clothing made of burlap and wooden clogs. Meals began to be skipped over frequently; when the slaves were fed, the meals were mostly just a watery soup with a paper-thin slice of bread. Corporal punishment also became more frequent.

ww2dbaseWhat really set Krupp apart from the other firms that employed slave labor was Krupp's ruthless efficiency. Aware of the Nazi policy of exterminating Jews from Europe, Krupp suggested "extermination through work" to Hitler some time in 1942. The SS initially opposed it, but approval came down after Krupp suggested commissions would be paid for each slave assigned. In Sep 1942, Hitler authorized a new policy that allowed Krupp representatives to visit concentration camps to pick out their laborers.

ww2dbaseBetween 1942 and 1945, Krupp employed forced labor in nearly 100 factories across Germany, Poland, Austria, France, and Czechoslovakia. The number was about 100,000 persons. As the Krupp factories filled up with slave laborers, their living quarters became no different than the concentration camps they had come from. Triple-layer bunks, a familiar image of concentration camps, were common in Krupp quarters for the slaves. Guard towers and barbed wires, too, became commonplace. There were Krupp employees who protested against the maltreatment of slaves, especially those of Eastern European origins who were treated worse than others, but their efforts made little difference. All they could do was sneaking in some food to the slaves when they could.

ww2dbaseTad Goldsztajn, one of the slaves at Essen in Germany, recalled later:

We were not slaves; our status was much lower. True, we were deprived of freedom and became a piece of property which our master put to work. But here the similarity with any known form of slavery ends, for we were a completely expendable piece of property. We did not even compare favorably with Herr Krupp's machinery, which we tended. The equipment in the shop was well maintained. It was operated with care, oiled, greased and allowed to rest; its longevity was protected. We, on the other hand, were like a piece of sandpaper which, rubbed once or twice, becomes useless and is thrown away to be burned with the waste.

ww2dbaseGoldsztajn was not exaggerating. Especially toward the end of the war, Krupp treatment for the slaves could only be described as widespread sadism. The slave drivers, Krupp employees and SS men, regularly punished slaves for no apparent reason. The luckier ones got away with shaved heads. Others were hit with fists, whips, rubber tubes, and sometimes metal pipes. During the cold winters, the facilities were completely inadequate to shield them against the cold, and the slaves had nothing more than their burlap clothing and another piece of burlap as blankets; coupled with the inadequate food, many froze to death. Sanitary conditions should have been better the concentration camps, but they were not. While some concentration camps lacked toilets for their prisoners, Krupp had them, but some of the slaves were not allowed to use them; to make the Jewish slaves feel that they were sub-human as dictated by Nazi ideology, they were forced to squat outside factories and bunkers to relieve themselves, in full view of passers by. Diseases, therefore, became rampant, and there were little medical help for them. Hospitals for slaves, usually without any medical professionals, were often simply a quarantine zone with a handful of beds where the sick only got worse.


ww2dbaseAfter the war, the term Holocaust was used to describe the systematic murders, particularly the genocide of the Jews. Advocates such as Simon Wiesenthal dedicated their efforts in finding those responsible for the murders and bringing them to justice.

ww2dbasePost-WW2 politics affected who shouldered the blame for the Holocaust. A great number of victims lost their lives over pits, but gas chambers at concentration camps and extermination camps were repeatedly and purposefully used as the location of their deaths, for that the physical boundaries of the gas chambers and camps led people to feel that the murders took place inside camps, rather than the reality that Jews and others were killed all across Germany and occupied countries. Meanwhile, the stress on bringing justice for Nazi Party leaders and SS officer and men was an attempt to pin the blame on a select and undoubtedly guilty group of Germans, while leading people to think less about the atrocities committed by the members of the German military, and the participation or collaboration of German civilians. This focus was also supported by the governments of the Soviet Union and Soviet satellite states that experienced German occupation during the war, for that they could not explain the anti-Semitic and collaborative actions committed by thousands of non-Jews in Poland, Ukraine, etc.

Stephen Ambrose, Band of Brothers
Dwight Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe
William Manchester, The Arms of Krupp
William Manchester, The Last Lion
Anthony Read and David Fisher, The Fall of Berlin
Timothy Snyder, Black Earth
University of San Diego

Last Major Update: Dec 2006

Discovery of Concentration Camps and the Holocaust Interactive Map


German SA men publicly humiliating Jewish attorney Michael Siegel, M├╝nchen, Germany, 10 Mar 1933, photo 1 of 2German SA men publicly humiliating Jewish attorney Michael Siegel, M├╝nchen, Germany, 10 Mar 1933, photo 2 of 2
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Nazi German Concentration Camps and Prison Camps

Discovery of Concentration Camps and the Holocaust Timeline

22 Feb 1933 Initial plans were made for a detention camp in Oranienburg, Germany.
12 Mar 1933 Oranienburg north of Berlin, Germany became the site of the first German concentration camp.
20 Mar 1933 Dachau Concentration Camp was established in Germany by the order of Heinrich Himmler; it was to be guarded by men of the SS.
22 Mar 1933 Dachau Concentration Camp in southern Germany began operations. SS-Standartenf├╝hrer Hilmar W├Ąckerle was named the first commandant.
1 Oct 1933 SS official Theodor Eicke expanded the punishment directives at Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany; these directives were later applied to all camps until the end of the European War.
4 Oct 1933 In Germany, the "Law for Literary Leaders" dictated the content of what could now be written. A section of the law excluded Jews from the press, while another required all editors to be Aryans.
17 Nov 1933 The first non-political prisoners were sent to concentration camps in Germany.
24 Nov 1933 Germany passed laws noting that a habitual criminal, defined as a person convicted of two criminal offenses, could be detained in a concentration camp indefinitely.
28 Feb 1934 The German Army ordered the dismissal of all "Jews" (all non-Aryans) from military service.
12 Apr 1934 German justice department issued orders to prevent "improper usage of protective custody" to prevent those who did not deserve to be sent to concentration camps from being sent there; this ruling remained valid until 1938.
23 Apr 1934 The Sonnenburg and Brandenburg concentration camps closed.
1 May 1934 During this month, SS leader Theodor Eicke was given the task by Heinrich Himmler to reorganize all concentration camps, using Eicke's former direct responsiblity, Dachu Concentration Camp, as a model.
25 May 1934 Concentration camps in Emsland, Lower Saxony, Germany were placed under the jurisdiction of the German justice department; the SA provided guards for the camps.
30 Jun 1934 Oranienburg Concentration Camp in Germany was transferred under the jurisdiction of the German justice department.
1 Jul 1934 During this month, as "Night of the Long Knives" shattered the SA organization in Germany, the SS took over control of guarding concentration camps.
7 Jul 1934 German SS official Theodor Eicke was appointed the Inspector of Concentration Camps and of SS Guard Associations.
10 Dec 1934 All concentration camps in Germany were transferred under the Inspekteur der KL (Inspector for Concentration Camps, or IKL), who was a part of the SS organization; the only exception was the Kislau Concentration Camp, which remained under the Interior Ministry of Baden.
8 Jan 1935 The Gestapo prison Columbia-Haus in Berlin, Germany became a concentration camp.
15 Mar 1935 In the Hohnstein trial in Dresden, Germany, members of the SA organization who staffed the Hohenstein Concentration Camp were sentenced to prison for mistreating concentration camp prisoners; in Nov of the same year, they were all pardoned without exception.
1 Apr 1935 In Germany a nationwide network of clinics for racial hygiene was established with the aim of collecting and processing data about citizens' racial purity. The information obtained would provide a perverse instrument for social discrimination throughout the country.
13 Jun 1935 Karl-Otto Koch was made the commandant of Columbia Concentration Camp in Berlin, Germany.
1 Oct 1935 As a reaction to criticism from the German justice department on the increasing number of "unnatural deaths" in concentration camps, the Gestapo released behavior guidelines for the guards during this month.
14 Nov 1935 After lengthy argument a supplement to the German Citizenship law was published, which laid down that a German with two Jewish grandparents, who was himself an orthodox Jew, or was married to a Jew, or was the offspring of a marriage with a Jew, was Jewish under the law. However all other half or quarter Jews were still German citizens. Those who were considered Jews under this supplement were denied voting rights and forbidden to hold public office, regardless of whether he was a WW1 veteran (who had enjoyed special privileges previously despite being Jewish).
1 Apr 1936 Karl-Otto Koch stepped down as the commandant of Columbia Concentration Camp in Berlin, Germany.
20 Apr 1936 Karl-Otto Koch was made the commandant of Esterwegen Concentration Camp in Esterwegen, Germany.
5 Jun 1936 Esterwegen Concentration Camp in Germany was closed to be converted to be a punishment camp; prisoners of Esterwegen were ordered to build the Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp.
26 Jun 1936 The German military began to exclude Jews from service.
1 Aug 1936 The 1936 Olympic Games started in Berlin, Germany; anti-Semitic posters were temporarily removed for the duration of the events.
28 Aug 1936 German authorities arrested large numbers of Jehovah's Witnesses, sending some of them to concentration camps.
5 Nov 1936 Columbia-Haus Concentration Camp in Berlin, Germany was closed.
23 Jan 1937 Heinrich Himmler disclosed that about 8,000 prisoners were in concentration camps across Germany for protective custody.
23 Feb 1937 Heinrich Himmler issued the directive to arrest about 2,000 "professional and habitual criminals" in Germany on 9 Mar 1937 in one swift strike; they were to be sent to concentration camps.
15 Jul 1937 In Germany, the construction of Buchenwald Concentration Camp began by the inmates of the Lichtenburg Concentration Camp.
1 Aug 1937 Karl-Otto Koch was made the commandant of Buchenwald Concentration Camp in Weimar, Germany.
14 Dec 1937 German National Ministry of the Interior provided legal means for the police to commit criminals to concentration camps directly.
25 Jan 1938 German National Ministry of the Interior ordered that protective custody must be served in concentration camps and not in institutions of the justice department.
21 Mar 1938 The female prisoners at Moringen Concentration Camps were transferred to the Lichtenburg Concentration Camp, which was a camp exclusively for women prisoners.
24 Mar 1938 An SS commission chose Flossenb├╝rg in southern Germany as the location of a new Nazi slave labor camp.
25 Mar 1938 The Evian Conference, called for by US President Franklin Roosevelt, was held in Evian, France to discuss the arrangement of homes for Jewish refugees who had fled from Germany. Ultimately the conference would result in nothing.
31 Mar 1938 The order for the construction of eight barracks at the Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp in southern Germany was issued.
26 Apr 1938 Germany enacted a law that required authorization for Jews to sell or rent a company.
3 May 1938 The first transport, containing 100 prisoners, arrived at the newly established Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp in southern Germany.
9 May 1938 A numbers of prisoners arrived at the newly established Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp in southern Germany.
16 May 1938 A numbers of prisoners arrived at the newly established Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp in southern Germany. On the same day, Heinrich Himmler and Oswald Pohl arrived at the camp for an inspection.
9 Jun 1938 The main synagogue in M├╝nchen (Munich) in southern Germany was demolished.
15 Jun 1938 1,500 previously-convicted Jews, including minor offenses such as traffic violations, were sent to concentration camps in Germany.
15 Jul 1938 Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, and 29 other nations met at ├ëvian-les-Bains, France to discuss the issue of Jewish refugees fleeing out of Germany; no solid conclusion was reached.
21 Jul 1938 Germany passed laws requiring Jews to carry identification cards, effective 1 Jan 1939.
28 Jul 1938 Germany passed laws revoking medical certifications of Jewish doctors, effective 30 Sep 1938; thereafter Jewish doctors could only serve as nurses for Jewish patients.
8 Aug 1938 The building of Mauthausen Concentration Camp in Austria began.
10 Aug 1938 The main synagogue at N├╝rnberg, Germany was destroyed.
17 Aug 1938 Germany passed laws requiring Jews to add either "Israel" or "Sara" to their names, effective 1 Jan 1939.
17 Aug 1938 Adolf Hitler ordered that, in time of war, guard duties of concentration camps would be carried out by older members of the general SS; SS members older than the age of 45 began training for guard duties shortly after.
12 Sep 1938 Germany forbade Jews from attending public cultural events.
27 Sep 1938 Germany passed law to revoke licenses to practice law for all Jewish attorneys, effective 30 Nov 1938; thereafter Jewish attorneys could only act as "consultants" for other Jews on matters of law.
5 Oct 1938 Germany revoked passports belonging to Jews and made re-issuance of new passports more difficult; the new passports were stamped "J" to signify Jewish ownership.
28 Oct 1938 Germany expelled 15,000 to 17,000 Jews of Polish origin across the Polish border.
1 Nov 1938 German newspaper Kinzigwacht declared the town of Gelnhausen, Germany Judenfrei, "Free of Jews", after the town's synagogue closed its doors and the Jews forced to moved out.
15 Nov 1938 In Germany, Jewish children were expelled from schools.
28 Nov 1938 German police issued orders restricting movement of Jews.
3 Dec 1938 German government revoked driver's licenses held by Jews.
8 Dec 1938 A decree on "Combating the Gypsy Plague" was published by Heinrich Himmler as Chief of the Reich Police. Under the decree German Gypsies would now be considered as an alien race and therefore be liable for deportation or forced Labour.
24 Jan 1939 Germany established the National Central Office for Jewish Emigration with branch offices in Vienna and Prague.
18 Apr 1939 Slovakia passed anti-Semitic laws.
30 Apr 1939 Germany passed laws in preparation to move Jewish families into buildings reserved for Jewish residences.
15 May 1939 Ravensbr├╝ck Concentration Camp for women was established in Germany.
26 Jun 1939 German Gestapo ordered all Czechs who were deemed unwilling to work, politically active, or deemed to have anti-German beliefs were to be placed in concentration camps.
6 Jul 1939 The last remaining Jewish enterprises in Germany were closed.
1 Sep 1939 Germany placed a curfew on German Jews: 9pm in the summer, 8pm in the winter.
1 Sep 1939 Adolf Hitler authorized Reichsleiter Bouhler and Dr. Brandt to "grant merciful deaths" for the mentally ill and those who were suffering from incurable diseases. This was the beginning of Action T4 euthanasia program.
1 Sep 1939 Reinhard Heydrich presided a meeting attended by the heads of Security Police and Commanders of Special Units, during which the deportation of the "remaining 30,000 Gypsies" from Germany to the soon-to-be-conquered territory of Poland was ordered.
2 Sep 1939 The Germans began the construction of Stutthof Concentration Camp in Sztutowo (German: Stutthof) in the Free City of Danzig with labor of 65,000 Polish Christians.
3 Sep 1939 German government issued orders that executions by members of the SS were to be carried out in concentration camps, effective 20 Sep 1939.
8 Sep 1939 German troops burned 200 Jews alive in a synagogue and executed 30 Jews in the public square in Bedzin, Poland.
9 Sep 1939 German Gestapo ordered all misbehaving Polish citizens to be arrested and placed in Dachau Concentration Camp in southern Germany.
19 Sep 1939 The German Army told the SS organization to hold off the rounding up and mass murder of Polish Jews until Dec 1939 when the Army would be out of the area.
23 Sep 1939 German police began confiscating radios from Jews.
24 Sep 1939 German Einsatzgruppen murdered 800 members of Polish intelligentsia at Bydgoszcz, Poland.
27 Sep 1939 Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany was temporarily closed until 18 Feb 1940 for use of training SS units; prisoners of Dachau were sent to Mauthausen Concentration Camp.
1 Oct 1939 The German euthanasia program began on the ill and feeble.
8 Oct 1939 The first Jewish ghetto was established in Piotrkow, Poland.
10 Oct 1939 The first deportation of Austrian and Czechoslovakian Jews into concentration camps in Poland took place.
17 Oct 1939 Reinhard Heydrich ordered all Gypsy populations to cease travelling or face a concentration camp.
18 Oct 1939 Jews in Wloclawek, Poland were forced to wear the Star of David. On the same day, the first Jewish ghetto was established in Lublin, Poland.
21 Oct 1939 Germans began deporting Poles from Poznan to make the province "Germanic".
26 Oct 1939 German authoriities decreed that Polish Jews between the age of 14 and 60 were to be conscripted as forced laborers.
2 Nov 1939 The first transport of Polish women arrived at Ravensbr├╝ck Concentration Camp in Germany.
14 Nov 1939 Theodor Eicke was named the commander of all SS Death's Head units; Richard Glucks was to take over Eicke's former position as the inspector of concentration camps.
15 Nov 1939 Jews living in Reichsgau Wartheland (former Polish territory, annexed into Germany) began to be deported into the General Government region of former Poland.
17 Nov 1939 Massive Czech student uprising resulted in executions of 9 student leaders, the closing of Czech colleges and universities, and the movement of over 1,000 students to concentration camps.
23 Nov 1939 All Jews above the age of 10 in the General Government in German-occupied Poland were required to wear the Star of David.
23 Dec 1939 German SS organization decreed that Polish workers who left their workplace without permission were to be arrested and sent to concentration camps.
1 Feb 1940 SS-Reichsf├╝hrer Himmler ordered inspections of potential sites for a planned concentration camp. Among those inspected was the camp at Oswiecim, Poland, known in German as Auschwitz.
10 Feb 1940 Jews from Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland) and Stralsund in Pommern, Germany were deported to ghettos in Lublin, Poland.
12 Feb 1940 The first deportation of German Jews into occupied Poland took place.
21 Feb 1940 The future site of Auschwitz Concentration Camp was found in Poland.
23 Mar 1940 Deportation of Jews in German-occupied Eastern Europe continued despite of Hermann G├Âring's order for a temporary pause.
4 Apr 1940 Aktion 14 F 13 began; it was the first documented proof that the Nazi German regime conducted mass extermination of the handicapped in concentration camps.
27 Apr 1940 Chief of the German SS organization Heinrich Himmler gave the order to convert the 22 former artillery barrack buildings at Oswiecim, Poland into a concentration camp, later to be more commonly known by its German name, Auschwitz.
30 Apr 1940 The first guarded Jewish ghetto was established at ┼ü├│d┼║, Poland; it was later sealed off with 230,000 Jews inside.
25 May 1940 The first transport of prisoners arrived at the Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp in occupied Austria region of southern Germany.
10 Jun 1940 The Nazi Gestapo organization took control of the small fortress in Terez├şn (German: Theresienstadt) in occupied Czechoslovakia for use as a prison.
14 Jun 1940 A group of 728 Polish political prisoners from Tarn├│w become the first prisoners of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
14 Jun 1940 The first immates of Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia arrived.
16 Jul 1940 Vichy France revoked the French citizenship of naturalized Jews. Meanwhile, in German-occupied Alsace-Lorraine, 22,000 French citizens were forcibly deported to France.
28 Aug 1940 Radio broadcast in Vichy France announced that laws protecting Jews in France had been removed.
1 Sep 1940 The coke-fired two-retort furnace in the Auschwitz Concentration Camp crematorium was put into service for the disposal of bodies.
20 Sep 1940 The first group of prisoners arrived at Fort Breendonk in Belgium.
2 Oct 1940 Adolf Hitler ordered Hans Frank and other Nazi officials in occupied Poland to keep the standard of living low and to deprive the Polish population of education, for that the Polish people were now mere low laborers of Germany. Additionally, he ordered that the Polish gentry to be exterminated.
3 Oct 1940 Vichy France passed anti-Semitic laws that excluded Jews from positions in the army, government, commerce, industries, and the press. The law was signed by Philippe P├ętain, Pierre Laval, Rapha├źl Alibert, Marcel Peyrouton, Paul Baudouin, Yves Bouthillier, Charles Huntzinger, and Fran├žois Darlan.
9 Oct 1940 The occupation government in the Netherlands banned Jews and half-Jews from public employment.
12 Oct 1940 German Governor-General of occupied Poland Hans Frank ordered 138,000 Jews in Warsaw to move into the city's ghetto.
16 Oct 1940 German authorities ordered the establishment of Warsaw ghettos for Jews in occupied Poland.
15 Nov 1940 The Warsaw ghetto in Poland was sealed from the rest of the city, enclosing 400,000 Jews inside.
22 Nov 1940 The first execution by shooting took place at Auschwitz Concentration Camp; 40 men from Katowice, Poland were shot between 0000 and 0020 hours by SS men in retaliation of assault on a police official.
2 Jan 1941 German leaders Himmler and Heydrich categorized concentration camps into three categories for different types of prisoners, but in practice this categorization had little actual effect.
22 Jan 1941 The first massacre of Jews in Romania took place.
23 Jan 1941 600 Polish prisoners arrived at Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp from Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
6 Feb 1941 Executions of prisoners by gunfire began at Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp; the first victims were Polish political prisoners.
22 Feb 1941 430 Dutch Jews were deported from Amsterdam to Auschwitz Concentration Camp as reprisal for the murder of a Dutch Nazi Party member.
1 Mar 1941 Heinrich Himmler paid his first visit to Auschwitz Concentration Camp. During the visit, he ordered Commandant Rudolf H├Âss to expand the current camp to hold a total of 30,000 prisoners, expand the camp to Birkenau with capacity for 100,000 prisoners, supply 10,000 prisoners to work for the nearby I.G. Farben factory, and to expand the camp's agricultural and industrial output.
6 Mar 1941 New German laws decreed that Polish farm workers were not to complain, were denied from any cultural events, and were forbidden to have sexual intercourse.
9 Mar 1941 Polish Jews from the city of Oswiecim (Auschwitz) began to be deported to the town of Chrzanow in southern Poland.
9 Mar 1941 Vichy France announced that authorization was now needed for Jews to sell or rent a company.
6 Apr 1941 A transport of 1,021 prisoners from Pawiak Prison in Warsaw, Poland arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Famous actors Bronislaw Dardzinski, Tadeusz Hertman Kanski, Stefan Jaracz, Zbigniew Nowakowski, and Leon Schiller were among them, arrested for the murder of actor Igo Sym who collaborated with German propaganda efforts.
14 Apr 1941 The first major mass arrest of Jews in Paris, France took place.
17 Apr 1941 SS-Untersturmfuehrer Maximilian Grabner at Auschwitz Concentration Camp announced that urns containing the ashes of Polish political prisoners who died at Auschwitz no longer needed to be sent to their families.
1 May 1941 Gro├č-Rosen Concentration Camp, formerly a satellite camp of Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, became an independent camp. It was located in Gro├č-Rosen, Lower Silesia, Germany (now Rogoznica, Poland).
14 May 1941 3,600 French Jews in Paris, France were arrested.
15 May 1941 Dr. Sigmund Rascher requested Heinrich Himmler via a letter requesting concentration camp prisoners to be placed in his disposal to conduct experiments in decompression chambers which simulated high altitude environments.
22 Jun 1941 Jews from the Dorohoi district of Romania were branded as communists and spies and transported by cattle cars to concentration camps in Tirgu and Craiova.
25 Jun 1941 Lithuanian militiamen in Kovno were encouraged by German security officers to stage a pogrom, and that night 1,500 Jews were murdered with particular savagery.
27 Jun 1941 In Kaunas, Lithuania, a group of Lithuanian nationalists gathered more than 50 Jewish men in a horse stable and beat them violently with iron bars in public view. None of the victims survived the Lietukis Garage Massacre.
29 Jun 1941 Romanian troops conducted a pogrom against Jews in the town of Jassy, killing 10,000.
2 Jul 1941 The local police in Riga, Latvia was organized by a German commander to murder 400 Jews and burn down all Riga's synagogues.
8 Jul 1941 Jews in the Baltic states were forced to wear the Star of David.
21 Jul 1941 Outside Minsk, Byelorussia, German SS troops ordered 30 Byelorussians to bury 45 Jews alive in a pit; upon meeting refusal, the SS men executed the entire group of 75 by machine gun fire.
22 Jul 1941 Vichy France enacted a law that required Jews to register their businesses, which in effect excluded all Jews from commerce and industry.
26 Jul 1941 3,800 Lithuanian Jews were killed during a pogrom in Kovno.
28 Jul 1941 A special commission created on Heinrich Himmler's orders arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp to select prisoners within the framework of the "Euthanasia Program" for the incurably ill, extended in 1940 to Jews and in the middle of 1941 to prisoners of concentration camps. The 573 selected, most were sick Polish prisoners from Block 15, were told that they were to be transferred to other camps for easier work because of their conditions. At last moment, two German criminals Johann Siegruth and Ernst Krankemann were added to the list. The 575 were sent to Sonnenstein Castle under the supervision of Franz H├Âssler and were killed by carbon monoxide poisoning in a gas chamber disguised as a shower room.
15 Aug 1941 In Germany it became a criminal offence for Jews not to wear the yellow Star of David.
20 Aug 1941 After sundown, the Germans conducted another round-up of Jews in Paris, France. Their French passports were confiscated, and they would eventually be deported to the Drancy Concentration Camp and later to various concentration camps in Germany and Eastern Europe.
26 Aug 1941 The Hungarian Army rounded up 18,000 Jews at Kamenets-Podolsk, Ukraine.
1 Sep 1941 Alfons Bentele was assigned to Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
1 Sep 1941 All Jews above the age of six in Germany and occupied lands were ordered to wear the yellow Star of David with the word "Jude" inscribed in black within; this was to be effective 19 Sep 1941.
3 Sep 1941 Experimental trials of gas chambers at Block II of Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland began, using Soviet prisoners of war as test subjects. Zyklon-B was used.
5 Sep 1941 The exhibition "Le Juif et la France" ("The Jews and France") opened in Paris, France based on the work of the anti-Semitic French Professor George Montandon with the urging of the Nazi German occupation.
6 Sep 1941 The Vilna Ghetto was established in Lithuania, containing 40,000 Jews.
8 Sep 1941 80 Polish prisoners were executed by gunfire at Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp. After this execution, local civilians complained of blood contaminating local streams, and the method of execution at Flossenb├╝rg would be switched to lethal injections.
12 Sep 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 993 adult male, 1,670 adult female, and 771 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 3,334 people.
16 Sep 1941 German troops massacred Jews en masse in Vinnitsa, Ukraine.
17 Sep 1941 The general deportation of German Jews began.
17 Sep 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 337 adult male, 687 adult female, and 247 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 1,271 people. 4 Communists were also executed in Vilnius by Jager's Einsatzgruppen on this date.
20 Sep 1941 The Karl J├Ąger report, issued on 1 Dec 1941, noted that on this date 128 adult male, 179 adult female, and 99 children, all Jews, were killed in Nemencing, Lithuania for a total of 403 people.
22 Sep 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 512 adult male, 744 adult female, and 511 children, all Jews, were killed in Riess, Lithuania for a total of 1,767 people.
23 Sep 1941 The German authorities in Paris, France issued a decree that stated that any French man concealing or assisting a British Airman would be shot, and any woman would be sent to a concentration camp.
24 Sep 1941 The German Einsatzgruppe C set up its headquarters in Kiev, Ukraine.
25 Sep 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 215 adult male, 229 adult female, and 131 children, all Jews, were killed in Jahiuna, Lithuania for a total of 575 people.
27 Sep 1941 23,000 Jews were massacred at Kamenets-Podolsk, Ukraine.
27 Sep 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 989 adult male, 1,636 adult female, and 821 children, all Jews, were killed in Eysisky, Lithuania for a total of 3,446 people.
28 Sep 1941 A notice was posted in Kiev, Ukraine, requiring all Jews in the region to gather at Dorogozhitshaya Street at 0700 hours the next day.
30 Sep 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 366 adult male, 483 adult female, and 597 children, all Jews, were killed in Trakai, Lithuania for a total of 1,446 people.
1 Oct 1941 Operations began at Majdanek Concentration Camp near Lublin, Poland.
4 Oct 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 432 adult male, 1,115 adult female, and 436 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 1,983 people.
6 Oct 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 213 adult male, 359 adult female, and 390 children, all Jews, were killed in Semiliski, Lithuania for a total of 962 people.
9 Oct 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 1,169 adult male, 1,840 adult female, and 717 children, all Jews, were killed in Svenciany, Lithuania for a total of 3,726 people.
14 Oct 1941 Germany announced that all Jews within the 1933 border would be deported; these Jews were beginning to be deported to ghettos in Poland, Byelorussia, and Ukraine.
15 Oct 1941 German SS-Brigadef├╝hrer Franz Stahlecker of Einsatzgruppe A sent a 130-page report to Berlin, Germany on this date. He reported that, among other things, 71,105 Jews had been liquidated in Lithuania and 30,000 Jews in Latvia, and 3,387 Communists in Russia.
16 Oct 1941 A round of mass deportation of Jews from Germany began.
16 Oct 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 382 adult male, 507 adult female, and 257 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 1,146 people.
17 Oct 1941 The first transport of deported Czech Jews departed for various locations in Eastern Europe.
17 Oct 1941 The German propaganda ministry declared Luxembourg Judenfrei, "Free of Jews".
21 Oct 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 718 adult male, 1,063 adult female, and 586 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 2,367 people.
23 Oct 1941 2,014 German Jews originally from Cologne, Germany arrived at the ┼ü├│d┼║ Ghetto in Poland.
23 Oct 1941 The German government banned the emigration of Jews.
25 Oct 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 1,776 adult female and 812 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 2,578 people.
27 Oct 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 946 adult male, 184 adult female, and 73 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 1,203 people.
28 Oct 1941 34,000 Jews were massacred in Kiev, Ukraine.
29 Oct 1941 15,000 Jews were massacred in Kovno (Kaunas), Lithuania. Their remains were buried in mass graves at the Ninth Fort.
30 Oct 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 382 adult male, 789 adult female, and 362 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 1,553 people.
6 Nov 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 340 adult male, 749 adult female, and 252 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 1,341 people.
9 Nov 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 76 adult male, 77 adult female, and 18 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 171 people.
16 Nov 1941 On this Sunday, a Catholic Mass was secretly held in a dark aisle between bunks on the second floor of Block 4 at Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
19 Nov 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 6 prisoners of war and 8 Polish Jews were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania.
20 Nov 1941 The two crematoria of Auschwitz Concentration Camp were inactivated for servicing; camp commandant ordered that corpses of prisoners were to be transported to Birkenau (not yet a camp) for burying in mass graves until the servicing was done on 3 Dec 1941.
20 Nov 1941 In Vilnius, Lithuania, 3 prisoners of war were executed as later reported by the Jager Report on 1 Dec 1941.
24 Nov 1941 The walled city of Terez├şn (German: Theresienstadt) began its conversion into a ghetto for Jews. Its mission was to serve as a transit camp for Jews en route to concentration camps to the east.
25 Nov 1941 The Jager Report (issued on 1 Dec 1941) noted that 9 adult male, 46 adult female, and 8 children, all Jews, were killed in Vilnius, Lithuania for a total of 63 people. Additionally, 1 Polish national was also executed for possession of arms.
30 Nov 1941 Latvian and German Jews were massacred near Riga, Latvia.
1 Dec 1941 SS-Standartenfuhrer Jager submitted a report dated on this day, noting that his Einsatzgruppen, operating in Lithuania, had killed 99,804 Jews in that country to this date. In the same report, the detachment also under Jager sent to Minsk, Byelorussia reported killing 620 adult male, 1,285 adult female, and 1,126 children, all Jews; 19 communists were also executed in Minsk by this detachment.
3 Dec 1941 The two crematoria of Auschwitz Concentration Camp that was inactivated on 20 Nov for service were reactivated.
8 Dec 1941 Chelmno Concentration Camp north of ┼ü├│d┼║, Poland began mass murders using gas vans; it was the first large camp established for the purpose of mass exterminations. The first victims were Jewish and Romani civilians from surrounding towns.
15 Dec 1941 German SS personnel began killing the remaining Jews in Liepaja, Latvia, most of whom were women and children.
16 Dec 1941 The German SS slaughter of Jews in Liepaja, Latvia continued.
16 Dec 1941 The refugee ship Struma arrived in Istanbul, Turkey with 769 Romanian Jews aboard; without permission to enter Palestine, they would remain on the ship for the following two months.
17 Dec 1941 2,749 Jews, mostly women and children, were killed on the beach near Liepaja, Latvia. Most Jews of Liepaja were now eliminated, short of a small left alive to be used as slave laborers.
21 Dec 1941 Isopescu, the Romanian governor of Golta, Transnistria, Romania (now Pervomaisk, Ukraine), ordered the execution of Jews at Bogdanovka Concentration Camp. 4,000 Jews were moved into cow sheds then burned alive. An unknown number of Jews were marched into a ravine and executed by gunfire in the following four days. The massacre ended in the evening of 24 Dec 1941.
24 Dec 1941 94 Soviet prisoners of war and 23 political prisoners died in Auschwitz Concentration Camp. On the same day, 37 prisoners from block 20 of Auschwitz were killed by heart phenol injection.
25 Dec 1941 60 Soviet prisoners of war and 23 political prisoners died in Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
30 Dec 1941 10,000 Jews were massacred in Simferopol, Russia.
9 Jan 1942 A transport of 1,005 Jews departed from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia for locations in Eastern Europe. Most of them were sent to Riga, Latvia.
15 Jan 1942 In Poland, German authorities began to deport Jews from the ┼ü├│d┼║ ghetto to the Chelmno Concentration Camp.
26 Jan 1942 Heinrich Himmler announced his plan to send 100,000 Jewish men and 50,000 Jewish women to concentration camps for use as forced laborers within the following four weeks.
31 Jan 1942 German SS Einsatzgruppe A reported a tally of 229,052 Jews killed in the Baltic States and in Byelorussia, while Estonia was reported to be free of Jews. Extermination activities had paused in Lithuania, it reported, but would soon be picked up again.
12 Feb 1942 Sigmund Rascher submitted a report on the effect of nude women on men who had been exposed to extreme cold; this project was ordered by Himmler. Rascher noted that for the most part, warm baths were more effective.
23 Feb 1942 Turkish troops boarded the disabled passenger ship Struma at Istanbul, Turkey; Struma had departed Romania in Dec 1941 with 769 Romanian Jewish refugees on board and had been at Istanbul for two months. The Turkish troops prepared Struma for towing, and before the day ended she was towed through the Bosphorus into the Black Sea, where she was abandoned with all passengers still aboard.
24 Feb 1942 Passenger ship Struma, powerless with broken-down engines, drifted in the Black Sea after being abandoned by Turkish authorities on the previous day. In the morning, Soviet submarine SC-213 sank Struma with one torpedo, killing 768 of 769 Romanian Jewish refugees aboard.
1 Mar 1942 Construction for Sobib├│r Concentration Camp in occupied Poland began.
13 Mar 1942 1,200 sick prisoners from the hospital within Auschwitz I camp who were judged as not able to recover were transferred to the BIb sector of Birkenau camp, where they were killed. Their bodies were transported back to Auschwitz I to be cremated.
13 Mar 1942 In Poland, The Belzec Concentration Camp opened for operation with a transport of 6,000 Jews from Mielec, Poland.
15 Mar 1942 At Auschwitz I Concentration Camp, 28 prisoners died in the hospital. At Auschwitz II-Birkenau, SS guards killed 131 prisoners without reason before noon, and in the afternoon about 250 prisoners (including 103 Soviet prisoners of war) died from wounds sustained during torture.
16 Mar 1942 Belzec Concentration Camp was established in occupied Poland for the purpose of holding and exterminating Jews from Lublin and Galicia.
17 Mar 1942 In Aktion Reinhard, Jews from Lublin, Poland were sent to the nearby Belzec concentration camp.
17 Mar 1942 Sobib├│r concentration camp in occupied Poland conducted its first experimental gassing. Between 30 to 40 Jewish women from the Krych├│w forced labor camp were killed.
20 Mar 1942 Gas chambers of Block I of Auschwitz II (Birkenau) Concentration Camp began extermination operations.
21 Mar 1942 Jews from the Lublin ghetto in occupied Poland were deported to Belzec, Majdanek, and other concentration camps.
22 Mar 1942 Mass exterminations of Jews using Zyklon B gas began at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
24 Mar 1942 Deportation of Slovakian Jews to Auschwitz Concentration Camp began.
26 Mar 1942 A transport of 999 female Slovakian Jews from Poprad, Czechoslovakia arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland; they were the first Slovakians sent by Adolf Eichmann's RSHA IVB4 office. Coinciding with the arrival of the Slovakian Jews was the arrival of the first transport of female prisoners from Ravensbr├╝ck Concentration Camp in northern Germany, also containing 999 Jews.
27 Mar 1942 The deportation of French Jews to Auschwitz Concentration Camp began.
30 Mar 1942 French Jews began arriving at Auschwitz Concentration Camp, with the first transport originating from Compiegne.
10 Apr 1942 Norwegian Lutheran Bishop Eivind Berggrav, having been arrested by the German occupation administration in Norway for resistance on the previous day, was sent to the Bredtvet Concentration Camp.
16 Apr 1942 A large group of Polish artists and actors were arrested by the Germans in the Artists' Cafe in Krakow, Poland.
25 Apr 1942 The large group of Polish artists and actors arrested in Krakow, Poland were put on a transport for Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
27 Apr 1942 The first of 127 Polish female political prisoners arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. They were imprisoned in Block 8.
28 Apr 1942 SS-Obersturmf├╝hrer Franz Stangl was named the first commandant of Sobib├│r concentration camp in occupied Poland.
5 May 1942 German government ruled that deaths of concentration camp prisoners no longer had to be reported to the next of kin.
10 May 1942 A new concentration camp was opened near the village of Maly Trostenets near Minsk, Byelorussia.
16 May 1942 Sobib├│r concentration camp in occupied Poland was deemed fully operational.
18 May 1942 The newspaper New York Times published an article in an inside page that Germans had killed 100,000 Jews in the Baltic states, 100,000 in Poland, and 200,000 in Russia.
27 May 1942 168 prisoners, all Polish artists and actors arrested in the previous month, were shot at the execution wall in the courtyard of Block 11 in Auschwitz I in occupied Poland. They were killed in retaliation of the death of the German Luftwaffe commanding officer in Krakow, where the victims came from.
31 May 1942 Monowitz labor camp, later to become Auschwitz III, opened on this date, housing forced laborers charged with building the Buna-Works for the German chemical firm I. G. Farben.
1 Jun 1942 The Treblinka Concentration Camp in Poland began operation.
2 Jun 1942 About 50 German Jews from Berlin arrived at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia. They were the first German Jews to arrive at this camp.
7 Jun 1942 All Jews over the age of six were forced to wear the Star of David in occupied France.
10 Jun 1942 At Auschwitz Concentration Camp, about 50 Polish prisoners in the penal company attempted to escape while working at a drainage ditch in Birkenau; it was the first mass escape in the history of the camp. 9 were able to escape successfully. In response, the SS guards executed 20 prisoners by firing squad and sent 300 prisoners from the penal company in the gas chamber.
12 Jun 1942 During the morning roll call at Auschwitz Concentration Camp, 60 Polish prisoners were called out. They were shot at the Death Wall in the courtyard of Block 11 in retaliation of clandestine resistance organizations in Silesia region. The victims were transferred to Auschwitz between 1940 and 1942 from Sosnowiec, Katowice, and Krakow.
20 Jun 1942 About 1,000 Austrian Jews arrived at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia; they were the first Austrian Jews to arrive at this camp.
20 Jun 1942 Polish prisoners of Auschwitz Concentration Camp Kazimierz Piechowski, Stanislaw Gustaw Jaster, J├│zef Lempart, and Eugeniusz Bendera broke into a SS store room and stole uniforms and weapons and then made their escape from the concentration camp in disguise.
20 Jun 1942 The American newspaper New York Times published the report from the World Jewish Congress that the Germans had, to date, killed 1,000,000 Jews in "vast slaughterhouse for the Jews" located in Eastern Europe.
30 Jun 1942 All Jewish schools in Germany were forced to close.
30 Jun 1942 Auschwitz Concentration Camp's Bunker II, the second gas chamber, became operational.
1 Jul 1942 Jews were massacred in Byelorussian cities of Minsk, Lida, and Slonim.
1 Jul 1942 The Westerbork transit camp in the Netherlands began operations.
2 Jul 1942 The New York Times reported via the London Daily Telegraph that over 1,000,000 Jews had already been killed by Nazis.
2 Jul 1942 A group of Jews from Berlin, Germany were sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp in occupied Czechoslovakia.
4 Jul 1942 Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland began mass gassings.
7 Jul 1942 Heinrich Himmler authorized sterilization experiments to take place at Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
14 Jul 1942 Some German Jews were deported from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia to Minsk, Byelorussia and other locations in Eastern Europe.
14 Jul 1942 The deportation of Dutch Jews to Auschwitz concentration camp began.
16 Jul 1942 9,000 French policemen conducted a round-up, gathering 12,887 Parisian Jews born outside of France. 6,000 of them were sent to Drancy Concentration Camp Camp located just outside the city, while the other 6,000 were detained at the V├ęlodrome d'Hiver stadium where they had to share one water tap and ten toilets.
22 Jul 1942 At a meeting of the Judenrat, the Jewish Council which the Germans had set up to relay their orders to the people of the ghetto, SS Sturmbannf├╝hrer Hermann H├Âfle, the Resettlement Commissar, announced that all Jews living in Warsaw, Poland, regardless of age or sex, were to hold themselves in readiness for "resettlement on the east", ie. deportation. It was an order without appeal. For nine weeks the Ghetto Jews were herded onto cattle trucks and transported to Belzec and Treblinka Concentration Camps, where, on arrival, they were marched to the gas chambers and killed in their thousands.
22 Jul 1942 Deportation of Belgian Jews to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland began.
23 Jul 1942 Treblinka Concentration Camp in Poland began mass extermination by gassing. Its first prisoners would be Jews recently deported from the ghetto in Warsaw. 700,000 would be killed within the following one year.
28 Jul 1942 Heinrich Himmler received a report from the railroad industry that, since 22 Jul 1942, 5,000 Jews arrived from Warsaw, Poland each day for each of Treblinka Concentration Camp and 5,000 Jews arrived from Przemysl each week for Belzec Concentration Camp.
28 Jul 1942 A transport of 1,010 Jews (542 men and 468 women) arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland from Westerbork camp in the Netherlands; after the selection, 473 men and 315 women were registered; the remaining 222 were killed in the gas chambers.
31 Jul 1942 1,000 Jews from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia were taken to Baranowitsche Concentration Camp in Poland and gassed in vans.
4 Aug 1942 Deportation of Belgian Jews to Auschwitz Concentration Camp began.
10 Aug 1942 Jews of Lvov Ghetto in Ukraine started to be deported to concentration camps; 40,000 were deported within the following 12 days.
14 Aug 1942 7,000 "stateless" Jews were arrested in France by German authorities.
24 Aug 1942 Karl-Otto Koch stepped down as the commandant of Majdanek Concentration Camp in Poland.
26 Aug 1942 7,000 Jews were arrested in Vichy France.
27 Aug 1942 Polish Catholic priest Roman Sitko, formerly a rector of the theological seminary in Tarn├│w, Poland, was registered into the Auschwitz concentration camp as prisoner number 61908.
1 Sep 1942 Martin Gottfried Weiss was made the commandant of Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany.
1 Sep 1942 SS-Obersturmf├╝hrer Franz Reichleitner was named the commandant of Sobib├│r concentration camp in occupied Poland, replacing Franz Stangl.
9 Sep 1942 Burning of bodies in open-air pits began at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Additionally, a decision was made to dig up 107,000 already-buried bodies and burn them in pits; this decision was made to prevent the large number of bodies contaminating ground water.
18 Sep 1942 Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia surpassed its maximum capacity; 58,491 prisoners now resided in the camp.
18 Sep 1942 Monsignor Montini, future Pope Paul VI, sent a letter to Pope Pius XII, noting that "the massacres of the Jews reach frightening proportions and forms".
26 Sep 1942 The Nazi SS organization began to confiscate possessions of Auschwitz and Majdanek concentration camps prisoners. Currency, gold, and jewelry were sent to the SS Headquarters of the Economic Administration. Watches, clocks, and pens were sent to the troops on the front lines. Finally, clothing was distributed to German families in need.
30 Sep 1942 A transport containing 610 Jews arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp from the Westerbork camp in the Netherlands; 37 men and 118 women were registered into the camp, and the remaining 454 were gassed.
5 Oct 1942 Heinrich Himmler ordered that all Jews in concentration camps in Germany were to be transferred to Auschwitz or Majdanek concentration camps.
10 Oct 1942 From Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany, Sigmund Rascher reported his findings from experiments involving putting concentration camp prisoners in full flight suits and placing them in freezing conditions, concluding that the warming of the subjects' heads and necks were vital for the subjects' survival.
10 Oct 1942 German government increased rations by 10% for all foreign workers.
12 Oct 1942 Polish Catholic priest Roman Sitko, a Polish Catholic priest, formerly a rector of the theological seminary in Tarn├│w, Poland, was killed at Auschwitz concentration camp less than two months after his arrival.
18 Oct 1942 The German Ministry of Justice transferred the responsibility for Jews and citizens of Eastern European countries within Germany to the Gestapo.
19 Oct 1942 The last twelve surviving Jewish prisoners of Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp were transferred to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
23 Oct 1942 Auschwitz-bound prisoners in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Germany staged a revolt that resulted in failure.
26 Oct 1942 850 Jews were arrested in Norway. Meanwhile, in N├╝rnberg, Germany, 95 scientists gathered to review the result of Dr. Sigmund Rascher's freezing experiments using concentration camp prisoners as subjects.
28 Oct 1942 The first transport from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
29 Oct 1942 16,000 Ukrainian Jews of Pinsk Ghetto in Poland (now in Belarus) were massacred two days after Heinrich Himmler ordered the liquidation of this ghetto.
30 Oct 1942 All Jewish prisoners of Auschwitz I Concentration Camp were brought out for a roll call; 800 were chosen to be sent to the newly created Buna sub-camp in Monowice to supply workers for the nearly I.G. Farben chemical plant; a number of prisoners too weak to work were sent to the gas chambers.
30 Oct 1942 In Belgium, German Gestapo officers rounded up 100 Jewish children and their carers from a children's home in Brussels and moved them to a transit camp in Mechelen; protests, including one from the secretary-general of the Belgian Ministry of Justice, forced the Germans to return the children to the home.
1 Nov 1942 About 600 Dutch Jews and 977 German Jews from Berlin were gassed at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
3 Nov 1942 Polish political prisoner Heinz Radomski was caught while attempting to escape from sector BIb of the Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration camp. He was later executed on 24 Jul 1943 in the washroom of Block 11.
4 Nov 1942 A transport of 954 Jewish men, women, and children from Westerbork Concentration Camp in occupied Netherlands arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. 50 women were registered in the camp and 904 people were killed in the gas chambers.
5 Nov 1942 German government ordered that all Jews in concentration camps within Germany were to be deported to Auschwitz and Majdanek camps.
7 Nov 1942 A transport of 465 Jews arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland from the Westerbork Concentration Camp in the Netherlands. During the selection all of them were said to be unable to work, thus were all sent for one of the two provisional gas chambers.
8 Nov 1942 25 Jewish professional watchmakers were transferred from Majdanek Concentration Camp to Auschwitz Concentration Camp; they were later transferred to Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp where they would work in a workshop to sort and repair watches stolen from killed Jews for use by German troops.
14 Nov 1942 Two transports containing a total of 2,500 Jews from Ciechanow ghettos, Poland arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp; 633 men and 135 were registered into the camp, and the remaining 1,732 were killed in gas chambers. On the same day, 1,500 Jews from Bialystok District 2 in Poland arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp; 82 men and 379 women were registered into the came, and the remaining 839 were killed in gas chambers. Finally, the SS doctors of Auschwitz Concentration Camp sent 110 prisoners from the Auschwitz I hospital to Birkenau Concentration Camp to be killed in the gas chambers.
18 Nov 1942 About 1,000 Jews from ghettos of Grodno, Byelorussia arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland; 165 men and 65 women were registered, and about 770 were gassed.
24 Nov 1942 Rabbi Stephen Wise held a press conference in Washington, DC, United States on the Nazi extermination of European Jews. The information he shared was based a telegram sent by World Jewish Congress representative Gerhart Riegner in Aug 1942.
25 Nov 1942 The first deportation of Norwegian Jews to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland took place.
25 Nov 1942 The American newspaper New York Times published an announcement on page ten by Rabbi Wise about the slaughter of two million Jews.
26 Nov 1942 German government ordered that all Jewish forced laborers in the armament industry in Germany were to be deported to Auschwitz and Majdanek camps.
28 Nov 1942 About 1,000 Jews from Ciechan├│w ghettos in Poland arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp; after the selection 325 men and 169 women were registered in the camp, and the remaining about 506 people were gassed.
2 Dec 1942 Two transports arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp on this date. The first transport from Westerbork Concentration Camp in the Netherlands arrived with 826 Jews; 77 of them were registered into the camp, and the remaining 749 were gassed. The second transport from Grodno ghetto arrived with 1,000 Jews; 178 men and 60 women were registered into the camp, and the remaining 762 were gassed.
3 Dec 1942 Approximately 300 Jewish prisoners from the Sonderkommando who dug up and burned the 107,000 bodies buried in mass graves were taken from Auschwitz II-Birkenau to the main camp by SS guards. They were led to the gas chamber in Crematorium I and killed.
5 Dec 1942 The SS authorities organized a general selection among the prisoners of the female camp BIa in Auschwitz II-Birkenau Concentration Camp, which lasted all day, after which 2,000 young, healthy and fit to work women prisoners were killed in gas chambers.
6 Dec 1942 Two transports arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Of the 811 Jews from the Netherlands, 16 were registered in the camp and 795 were gassed. Of the about 2,500 Jews from the Mlawa ghetto, 406 were registered in the camp and around 2,094 were gassed.
10 Dec 1942 Three transports arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The first was from the Netherlands with 927 Jews; 39 men and 3 women were registered, and 885 were gassed. The second was from Berlin, Germany with 1,060 Jews; 137 men and 25 women were registered, and 898 were gassed. The third was from Malkinia, Poland with about 2,500 Jews; 524 were registered and about 1,976 were gassed.
13 Dec 1942 "Millions of human beings, most of them Jews, are being gathered up with ruthless efficiency and murdered", reported American journalist Edward R. Murrow. "There are no longer 'concentration camps' - we must speak now only of 'extermination camps'."
18 Dec 1942 The American newspaper New York Times published a front page story on the Nazi extermination of European Jews.
28 Dec 1942 Concentration camp doctors at Birkenau began sterilization experiments on female prisoners.
29 Dec 1942 In the afternoon, prisoners Otto K├╝sel, Jan Baras, Mieczyslaw Januszewski, and Dr. Boleslaw Kuczbara escaped from Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Otto K├╝sel, a German Jew with horse cart driving responsibilities, loaded up four cabinets for transport with the other three hidden inside, reaching an open field in the production area without being checked by SS guards due to the appearance of his usual duty. Mieczyslaw Januszewski came out, wearing a SS uniform and wielding a rifle, and sat next to K├╝sel. They left the camp after Januszewski produced a false SS identification. They made contact shortly after with the resistance group Polish Home Army.
6 Jan 1943 Jews in Opoczno, Poland were told that those with family in Palestine would be deported there. 500 Jews came out from hiding to register and were sent to Treblinka Concentration Camp where they were gassed.
9 Jan 1943 In the early afternoon, Czech prisoner Georg Zahradka or Zacharatka escaped from Auschwitz I concentration camp, but was captured by midnight near watchtower 26. He was executed on 14 Jan 1943.
11 Jan 1943 A transport of 750 Dutch Jews departed from Westerbork Concentration Camp in the Netherlands for Sobib├│r Concentration Camp in Poland.
13 Jan 1943 Three transports arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp, each containing 1,210 German Jews from Berlin (1,083 of them were sent directly to the gas chambers), 750 Dutch Jews (88 men and 101 women were registered, and the remaining 561 were gassed), and 2,000 Jews of Zambr├│w ghetto in Poland (148 men and 50 women were registered, and the remaining 1,802 were gassed).
14 Jan 1943 Georg Zahradka was executed at Auschwitz Concentration Camp for attempting to escape during the night of 9 Jan 1943.
20 Jan 1943 Transports of Jews from Theresienstadt Ghetto in occupied Czechoslovakia departed for Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland; several more transports departed from Theresienstadt in the following 6 days.
20 Jan 1943 German Inspector of Concentration Camps advised camp commandants to reduce rate of death for camp prisoners; however, camp doctors were given orders to kill the sick and the debilitated.
24 Jan 1943 A transport from a psychiatric hospital at Apeldoornse Bosh with 921 Jews arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. After the selection, 16 men and 60 women were registered; the remaining were sent to the gas chambers.
29 Jan 1943 German officials in Prague dissolved the Jewish Religious Congregation, the supreme authority for Czechoslovakia's Jewish communities. This organization would be succeeded by the Council of Jewish Elders on 8 Feb 1943, which was deemed to be more compliant by the German officials.
29 Jan 1943 Kurt Pr├╝fer of German engineering firm J. A. Topf und S├Âhne visited the Central Construction Office of Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland, inspecting the Crematoria II, III, IV, and V construction progress; he estimated the launch of Crematorium II to be around 15 Feb, Crematorium III around 17 Apr, Crematorium IV around 28 Feb, and Crematorium V's completion date depended largely on weather.
29 Jan 1943 German authorities ordered Roma and Sinti people across German-occupied Europe to be rounded up and sent to concentration camps.
31 Jan 1943 A transport with 2,834 Polish Jews from Pruzany arrived in Auschwitz Concentration Camp; it included 230 children under four and 520 children between four and ten. 313 men and 180 women were registered in the camp; the remaining 2,341, including all 750 children, were gassed.
1 Feb 1943 At Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland, SS personnel selected 20 Jewish prisoners who were already working at the crematorium in Auschwitz I and readied them for work in the soon-to-be-ready new crematoriums in Birkenau.
4 Feb 1943 A transport of 890 Jews from Westerbork Concentration Camp in the Netherlands arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland. 48 of the 312 males and 52 of the females were registered; the remaining 790 were sent to the gas chambers.
6 Feb 1943 All female prisoners at Auschwitz Concentration Camp were gathered for a general roll call at 0330 hours then marched outside the camp. They were kept outdoors until 1700 hours, then were ordered to run back to the camp, prodded by swinging clubs. About 1,000 women died during this forced march. Those who were not able to keep up but survived were rounded up and sent to block 25 in the BIa sector of the camp, from which location they would later be transported to the gas chambers.
10 Feb 1943 The German Central Construction Office (Bauleitung) reported that it could not meet the deadline for the construction of Crematorium II at Auschwitz Concentration Camp due to the fact that, of the 500 masons requested, only 30 were available.
11 Feb 1943 A transport from the Westerbork Concentration Camp in the Netherlands arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland with 476 men and 708 women; 113 men and 66 women were registered, and the remaining 1,005 were killed in the gas chambers.
12 Feb 1943 German engineering firm J. A. Topf und S├Âhne sent a letter to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland, confirming that it had received the order to build Crematoriums II and III at the camp.
12 Feb 1943 Jews from the Bialystok ghetto in Poland began to be deported to Treblinka Concentration Camp.
20 Feb 1943 A special section was established at the Hinzert Concentration Camp for Polish civilian workers who fraternized with German women.
22 Feb 1943 Bulgaria agreed to a German demand to deport 11,000 Jews from 23 communities in Thrace and Macedonia, occupied areas of Yugoslavia and Greece. They were sent to Treblinka Concentration Camp where many of them died subsequently.
23 Feb 1943 Germans brought 39 Jewish prisoners from Auschwitz II-Birkenau to Block 20 of Auschwitz I in occupied Poland. These prisoners, aged 13 to 17, were killed by phenol injections administered by SS-Unterscharf├╝hrer Herbert Scherpe in the evening. These prisoners were originally from the Zamosc region of Poland.
26 Feb 1943 The German government issued the order that Eastern European workers who were originally sent to concentration camps for a temporary basis were now to be held at the camps indefinitely.
26 Feb 1943 The first transport of Roma and Sinti arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland; they were assigned to the BIIe sector at Auschwitz II-Birkenau and housed in what was called the "Gypsy camp" (Zigeunerlager); this sector would eventually grow to house 23,000 Sinti and Roma people; 20,000 of them would not survive the Holocaust.
27 Feb 1943 Jews in Berlin, Germany who were previously allowed to remain there due to their positions in the armaments industry were deported to Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Meanwhile, the Rosenstrasse protest began in Berlin by women who had married Jewish men.
28 Feb 1943 A mistake in record-keeping at Auschwitz Concentration Camp caused registration information of the women's camp in Birkenau to be in a state of confusion. All female prisoners of Birkenau camp were gathered for a prolonged roll call which lasted the entire day to re-confirm camp records; at the same time, a selection also took place among the women, which condemned some of them to the gas chambers.
3 Mar 1943 The 32nd transport from Berlin, Germany arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland in two trains, totaling 1,758 German Jews and 158 Norwegian Jews. 535 men and 145 women were registered into the camp from the first train, and 50 and 164 were registered from the second train. The remaining 1,022 were killed in gas chambers.
4 Mar 1943 The Bulgarian government, in an attempt to protect Bulgarian Jews, fulfilled German pressure by deporting about 4,000 Greek Jews from the occupied territory of Thrace. These Greek Jews were eventually sent to concentration camps in Poland.
5 Mar 1943 During a test run of Crematorium II at Auschwitz-Birkenau, it took 40 minutes to cremate 45 bodies. An observing commission, which included engineers from the firm J. A. Topf and Sons and SS officers, complained that the amount of time it took was too long. They instructed the prisoners who operated the crematorium to keep the generators running for several days to increase the temperature.
7 Mar 1943 Roma and Sinti people from occupied Poland and Soviet Union began arriving at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
7 Mar 1943 4,500 Croatian Jews were arrested; they would be deported to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland between 7 and 13 Mar 1943.
9 Mar 1943 40,000 people attended an event at Madison Square Garden, New York, New York, United States organized by Peter Bergson to raise awareness of the Nazi extermination of European Jews.
10 Mar 1943 The German Gestapo organization sent 11 Polish men and 11 Polish women from Bielsko, Poland to Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
11 Mar 1943 German RSHA organization ordered that all Jews in the criminal rehabilitation system were to be sent to Auschwitz or Majdanek concentration camps, where they would remain indefinitely, after they served their sentences. Meanwhile, Bulgarian troops arrested 7,100 Macedonian Jews and deported them to the new Skopje Concentration Camp in Yugoslavia.
12 Mar 1943 The company Ostindustrie GmbH established by the German SS organization; it was to act as the holding company for Jewish businesses in Lublin, Poland taken over by the SS.
12 Mar 1943 German occupation authorities in the Netherlands ordered Jews residing in eight of the country's eleven provinces to be deported to the Vught (Hertogenbosch) Concentration Camp.
13 Mar 1943 The Krak├│w Ghetto in Poland was liquidated.
15 Mar 1943 Greek Jews from Salonika and Thrace were deported to concentration camps.
17 Mar 1943 Bulgaria stated its opposition to the deportation of Bulgarian Jews.
22 Mar 1943 Crematorium 4 began operation at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
23 Mar 1943 A group of Greek Jews were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp in Poland.
30 Mar 1943 A transport of 2,501 Jews from Thessaloniki, Greece arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland. 312 men and 141 women were registered, while the remaining 2,048 were gassed.
31 Mar 1943 Crematorium 2 began operation at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
4 Apr 1943 The German SS Central Construction Office reported to Auschwitz Concentration Camp that Crematorium V had been completed in Auschwitz II-Birkenau, and its administration was now turned over to the camp administration. According to the firm that built the crematorium, J. A. Topf und S├Âhne, it had the capacity to cremate 768 bodies each day.
9 Apr 1943 The German government re-designated Majdanek from a labor camp to a concentration camp.
9 Apr 1943 The Chelmno Concentration Camp in Reichsgau Wartheland, Germany (occupied Poland) temporarily ceased its extermination operations.
9 Apr 1943 German officially renamed Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland to Lublin Concentration Camp (Konzentrationslager Lublin).
11 Apr 1943 SS doctors at concentration camps were given orders to select prisoners to be sent to Hartheim Castle in Austria to be euthanized.
11 Apr 1943 Chelmno Concentration Camp in occupied Poland ceased operations.
18 Apr 1943 A transport of 2501 Jews from the ghetto in Thessaloniki, Greece arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland. Only 605 were registered into the camp; the remaining 1,896 were sent to the gas chambers.
22 Apr 1943 A transport of Jews from Westerbork Concentration Camp arrived at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in Sudetenland in southern Germany (occupied Czechoslovakia).
27 Apr 1943 The German Inspector of Concentration Camps ordered that only the mentally ill prisoners could be gassed via the Aktion T-4 Euthaniasia Program.
30 Apr 1943 The construction for the Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp in northwestern Germany began.
8 May 1943 German government issued the order that deaths of Eastern European workers in the concentration camps only need to be reported to labor offices.
20 May 1943 The women's camp in Auschwitz II-Birkenau in Poland reported that it had 20,635 female prisoners (9,337 with working assignments, 4,510 without working assignments, and 6,788 unable to work).
20 May 1943 Esterwegen Concentration Camp established a special camp named "S├╝d" (South) to hold prisoners transferred under the Nacht und Nebel program.
24 May 1943 SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer Dr. Josef Mengele arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. He was soon to begin experiments on prisoners.
25 May 1943 507 men and 528 women of the Gypsy camp in Birkenau of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp system, most of whom were from Poland and Austria, were gassed. At least several hundred of them were sick, many of whom with typhus, thus giving the camp authorities to write off their deaths as natural.
26 May 1943 The German government issued the order to stop assigning concentration camp victims sequantial identification numbers in order to hide the true number of deaths.
30 May 1943 SS-Hauptsturmf├╝hrer Josef Mengele became the doctor for the Gypsy Family Camp (Sector BIIe) of Auschwitz II-Birkenau camp in occupied Poland.
3 Jun 1943 German forces discovered 150 Jews hiding in a bunker in the Warsaw ghetto in Poland. They went on to destroy the bunker and killed all people within.
12 Jun 1943 Germans liquidated the Jewish Ghetto in Berezhany in western Ukraine. 1,180 Jews were led to the city's old Jewish graveyard and killed.
18 Jun 1943 Fritz Ritterbusch was assigned to Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
22 Jun 1943 Stutthof Concentration Camp conducted its first gassing, killing many Polish and and Byelorussian prisoners.
23 Jun 1943 All Jewish ghettos in the Galicia region of southeastern Poland and Ukraine were liquidated; 430,329 Jews were deported from this region.
25 Jun 1943 Jews in the ghetto of Czestochowa, Poland revolted; German authorities destroyed the ghetto in response.
25 Jun 1943 Crematorium III began operation at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The camp now had the capacity of cremating 4,756 bodies per day.
25 Jun 1943 The German Foreign Ministry representative in the Netherlands reported that 102,000 of the 140,000 Dutch Jews had been deported.
3 Jul 1943 The German SS organization took direct control of Drancy internment camp in Paris, France, installing Alois Brunner as the commandant.
14 Jul 1943 At Krasnodar in southern Russia, the Soviets began a trial of 11 Germans accused of the murder of 7,000 civilians by gas vans, shootings, and hangings.
19 Jul 1943 12 Polish prisoners of Auschwitz I camp were executed by hanging in front of the kitchen during roll call for helping three fellow prisoners escape. The men were Stanislaw Stawinski (No. 6569), Czeslaw Marcisz (No. 26891), Janusz Skrzetuski-Pogonowski (No. 253), Edmund Sikorski (No. 25419), Jerzy Wozniak (No. 35650), J├│zef Wojtyga (No. 24740), Zbigniew Foltanski (No. 41664), Boguslaw Ohrt (No. 367), Leon Rajzer (No. 399), Tadeusz Rapacz (No. 36043), J├│zef Gancarz (No. 24538), and Mieczyslaw Kulikowski (No. 25404).
20 Jul 1943 German government reports dated this date indicated that, since 2 Mar 1943, there had been 20 transports of Jews from the Netherlands to Sobib├│r Concentration Camp, totaling over 34,000 persons; only 19 of these deportees survived the Holocaust.
24 Jul 1943 Polish political prisoner Heinz Radomski was executed in the washroom of Block 11 at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
2 Aug 1943 Auschwitz Concentration Camp's special camp for Roma people was liquidated; 2,897 prisoners were gassed.
2 Aug 1943 200 Jews revolted in Treblinka concentration camp in Poland, burning down several buildings, and attempted to escape; camp guards found and killed most of them.
6 Aug 1943 German SS-Hauptsturmf├╝hrer Hans Aumeier gave his subordinates time off from 1300 hours on 7 Aug 1945 to end of the day of 8 Aug 1945 to recognize the work his men accomplished during the liquidation of the Jewish ghettos in Bedzin and Sosnowiec in the Silesia region of Germany (occupied Poland).
10 Aug 1943 A transport of about 3,000 arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp from the liquidated ghetto in Sosnowiec, Poland. 110 men and 195 were registered into the camp; the remainder were killed in the gas chambers. On the same day, Auschwitz received 754 sewing machines from the liquidated ghetto of Bedzin, Poland.
11 Aug 1943 Jews from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia began to be transported to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
16 Aug 1943 Starting this date and continuing for the next seven days, revolt and destruction took place in the Bialystok Ghetto in Poland.
21 Aug 1943 The authorities at the Birkenau women's camp at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland selected 498 Jewish women considered unable to work for the gas chamber; 438 of them were Greeks.
24 Aug 1943 1,260 Polish Jewish children from the liquidated Bialystok ghetto in Poland arrived at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia.
8 Sep 1943 A transport of 5,006 Jews (2,293 men and boys, 2,713 women and girls) from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in Czechoslovakia arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland. They were housed in the BIIb sector.
9 Sep 1943 5,006 Jews from the Theresienstadt ghetto in Czechoslovakia arrived at the newly created Familienlager-Theresienstadt family camp in sector BIIb of Auschwitz II-Birkenau Concentration Camp in Poland.
11 Sep 1943 German authorities raided Jews in Nice, France.
11 Sep 1943 Jewish ghettos in Byelorussian cities of Minsk and Lida were liquidated over the next 3 days.
23 Sep 1943 The Vilna Ghetto in Lithuania was liquidated.
25 Sep 1943 All Jewish ghettos in Byelorussia were liquidated.
27 Sep 1943 One of the Nazi officials in Rome demanded that the Jewish community pay one hundred pounds of gold within thirty-six hours or three hundred Jews would be taken prisoner. The Vatican would open its treasury to help the Jews reach the required amount.
1 Oct 1943 220 Danish Jews were arrested by the Gestapo.
2 Oct 1943 Orders were given by the German government to deport Danish Jews to concentration camps.
5 Oct 1943 1,196 Polish Jewish children originally from the liquidated Bialystok ghetto in Poland were transferred from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
7 Oct 1943 German artist Charlotte Salomon, who had married a French Jew, was deported from Drancy concentration camp in Paris, France for Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland.
14 Oct 1943 Prisoners at Sobib├│r concentration camp in occupied Poland, led by Byelorussian Jew Alexander Pechersky, killed 11 SS officers and seized the armory. 158 prisoners were killed during this action. Of those who succeeded in escaping, 53 were killed outside the camp, and 107 were captured and executed. Only 58 avoided capture; many of them would join partisan units.
16 Oct 1943 More than 1,000 Italian Jews from Rome were sent to Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
18 Oct 1943 Italian Jews from Rome began to be deported to concentration camps.
21 Oct 1943 1,007 Jews from the Westerbork camp in the Netherlands arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland. There were 87 children, 407 men and women under the age of 50 and 207 older people. After the selection 347 men and 170 women were registered. The other 409 were killed in the gas chambers.
22 Oct 1943 Block 11 of Auschwitz I concentration camp held a trial that sentenced 76 men and 19 women to death; they had been transferred from the prison in Myslowitz. The trial was presided by the new head of the Kattowitz Gestapo, SS-Obersturbanfuehrer Johannes Th├╝mmler, who was never punished after the war and passed away in old age in May 2002.
23 Oct 1943 A transport of prisoners from Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp arrived at Gas Chamber II of Auschwitz Concentration Camp. In the undressing room, one of the Jewish women seized SS man Josef Schillinger's pistol and shot Schillinger and another guard, Wilhelm Emmerich. Other prisoners joined in to attack other guards, but the SS eventually took control of the situation. Schillinger died on the way to the hospital; Emmerich survived the wound, but became permanently disabled.
26 Oct 1943 The human collection at the University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France was destroyed, as reported by the scientists who performed research on them for the Nazi regime. In actuality, there was not enough time to destroy the entire collection, and a few cadavers were hidden, to be found later.
31 Oct 1943 Martin Gottfried Weiss stepped down as the commandant of Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany.
1 Nov 1943 Martin Gottfried Weiss was named the commandant of Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland, succeeding Max Koegel.
2 Nov 1943 1,870 Jews from labor camp in Szopienice, Katowice, Poland arrived at Auschwitz. 463 men and 28 women were registered into the camp; the rest were sent to the gas chambers.
3 Nov 1943 A transport of 1,203 Jews arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp from a slave camp from Szopienice in southern Poland. 284 men and 23 women were registered into the camp; the remaining 896 were sent to a gas chamber.
3 Nov 1943 Jewish ghettos at Riga, Latvia were liquidated.
3 Nov 1943 During the German Aktion Erntefest, Jewish prisoners were beginning to be massacred at Trawniki, Poniatowa, and Majdanek Concentration Camps; when the aktion was completed on the following day, 42,000 would be dead.
11 Nov 1943 Liebehenschel became the new commandant of Auschwitz Concentration Camp as his predecessor, H├Âss, was promoted to become the chief inspector of concentration camps. A report dated on this date noted that the total number of prisoners in Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau Concentration Camps and all subcamps was 54,673 men and 33,179 women, for the total of 87,852 prisoners.
11 Nov 1943 Theresienstadt Concentration Camp commandant Anton Burger ordered the 40,000 prisoners of the camp to stand at attention outdoors in freezing weather; about 300 prisoners died from hypothermia.
19 Nov 1943 En route to a gas chamber at Auschwitz II in Poland, Bina Braun and Rosa Theberger attempted to escape but was caught and shot, and the rest were gassed. The list of 394 prisoners killed on this day was stolen and smuggled to the resistance leader in Auschwitz I camp, who sent the list on to Krakow, Poland on 21 Nov and then to London, England, United Kingdom.
20 Nov 1943 Jews in northern Italy were ordered to be sent to concentration camps.
1 Dec 1943 Arthur Liebehenschel became the second commandant of Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
2 Dec 1943 The first transport of Jews from Vienna arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
5 Dec 1943 German forces began a week-long operation to deport Jews from Bialystok, Poland. While about 10,000 were deported, unknown thousands of Jews were able to hide. 700 were killed while resisting. Most of those deported were sent to Treblinka, Majdanek, or Auschwitz Concentration Camps.
5 Dec 1943 A transport of 948 prisoners from Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. More than 250 prisoners were already dead upon arrival.
8 Dec 1943 A transport of 55 Berlin Jews arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland. After the selection, 14 were registered and 31 were gassed.
16 Dec 1943 The chief surgeon at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland reported that 106 castration operations had been performed on prisoners.
20 Dec 1943 The Rapportf├╝hrer of the quarantine camp at Auschwitz II-Birkenau Concentration camp (Sector BIIa) gave an order to flog the whole first row of prisoners for too little springy posture at the roll call, which took place during the cold wind and falling snow. Four prisoners were then transferred to the camp hospital due to the flogging.
25 Dec 1943 By this date in 1943, there were a total of 86,919 prisoners in the Auschwitz camp system in occupied Poland, 56,595 of whom were men and 30,324 were women.
31 Dec 1943 As of this date, Auschwitz Concentration Camp had a population of 85,298 prisoners (55,785 men and 29,513 women). In the month of Dec 1943, 5,748 male and 8,931 female registered prisoners died at Auschwitz; these numbers did not include those killed in gas chambers immediately after arriving without being registered.
4 Jan 1944 At Auschwitz Concentration Camp, SS Doctor Eduard Wirths notified fellow medical officers at Auschwitz III-Monowitz that, as of this date, corpses of deceased prisoners should be identified and then sent directly to the crematoria, bypassing the previous procedure of sending the corpses to the morgue at Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau first. Death reports, however, must still be filed at the orderly room of prisoners' hospital in Auschwitz I by noon time of the same day that the corpses were sent to the crematoria.
10 Jan 1944 A transport of 259 Jews from Stutthof Concentration Camp departed for Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
10 Jan 1944 French police arrested 228 Jews in and near Bordeaux and rounded them up at the Bordeaux synagogue.
11 Jan 1944 Several hundred Spanish Jews arrested in Greece and imprisoned at Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp were returned to Spain.
12 Jan 1944 1,000 Jews from Stutthof Concentration Camp arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp; 120 men and 134 women were registered into the camp while 746 were gassed upon arrival.
21 Jan 1944 600 prisoners deemed "invalid" were executed by gunfire at Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
23 Jan 1944 180 prisoners deemed "invalid" were executed by gunfire at Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
29 Jan 1944 A transport of 245 prisoners sent by the Bialystok Gestapo arrived at Stutthof concentration camp.
1 Feb 1944 A new satellite camp of Auschwitz III (Monowitz), located at the Guenthergrube in Ledziny, Poland opened. This new satellite camp would house 300 prisoners for coal mining for the German industrial firm I. G. Farben.
2 Feb 1944 A transport from Trieste, Italy arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Most of the prisoners were sent to the gas chambers upon arrival.
3 Feb 1944 The Drancy Concentration Camp in Paris, France sent its 67th transport for Auschwitz Concentration Camp with more than 1,000 Jews.
6 Feb 1944 A transport from Drancy Concentration Camp in Paris, France arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. 999 of the 1,214 Jews were sent to the gas chambers upon arrival; only 166 men and 49 women were registered into the camp.
9 Feb 1944 The German Foreign Ministry in the Hague reported back to Berlin that to date 108,000 Jews had been deported from the Netherlands. The Dutch population considered German methods brutal, and church circles were actively promoting disapproval for the deportations.
14 Feb 1944 Heinrich Himmler's orders to re-establish the Chelmno Concentration Camp in occupied Poland was received by German officials of Reichsgau Wartheland; the camp resumed extermination in May 1944.
15 Feb 1944 1,500 prisoners arrived at Mauthausen Concentration Camp in Austria from Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
19 Feb 1944 141 Libyan Jews held at the Fossoli transit camp near Modena, Italy were deported to Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp in Germany.
22 Feb 1944 Auschwitz III commandant SS-Hauptsturmf├╝hrer Schwarz ordered that night shift workers not be assigned to do any day shift work, the prisoners be given seven to eight hours of rest per day, and roll call be limited to five to ten minutes; his motivations were to maintain a high level of productivity from the forced laborers in his camp. On this date a total of 73,669 prisoners were in the Auschwitz Concentration Camp; Auschwitz I housed 17,177 male prisoners, Auschwitz II housed 18,378 male and 24,637 female prisoners, and Auschwitz III housed 13,477 male prisoners.
22 Feb 1944 In Italy, 650 Italian Jews were embarked onto a train at the Fossoli transit camp near Carpi, Modena for Auschwitz; many of them would be sent to the gas chambers upon arrival on 26 Feb 1944.
23 Feb 1944 39 Polish boys between the age of 13 to 17 originally from the Zamosc region were brought from Auschwitz II-Birkenau to block 20 at Auschwitz I. They were told that they would be trained to be nurses, but that evening they were killed with phenol heart injections given by SS-Unterscharf├╝hrer Scherpe.
26 Feb 1944 650 Italian Jews from Fossoli transit camp near Carpi, Modena and 84 Soviet prisoners of war from the Lamsdorf (Lambinowice, Poland) POW camp arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland. Of the Italian Jews, 95 men and 29 women were registered into the camp; the remaining 526 were sent to the gas chambers.
2 Mar 1944 421 Czech prisoners were transferred from Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland to Buchenwald Concentration Camp in Germany.
3 Mar 1944 A transport of 1,390 prisoners, mostly Latvians and Russians, was sent from Stutthof Concentration Camp to Mauthausen Concentration Camp.
4 Mar 1944 750 Jews from the ┼ü├│d┼║ ghetto were sent to the Hugo Schneider AG factories in Czestochowa, Poland as forced laborers.
5 Mar 1944 732 Jews from the Westerbork transit camp arrived at Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in Poland. 477 of them were sent to the gas chambers without being registered into the camp.
5 Mar 1944 Auschwitz-Birkenau camp officials decided to gas the Czech Jews of Theresienstadt camp (sector BIIb). They were given postcards post-dated 25-27 Mar 1944 with pre-printed message "we are healthy and fine" and were told to sign them. These prisoners were gassed on 8 Mar 1944 and the postcards were mailed after 25 Mar.
7 Mar 1944 38 Jews hiding at 84 Grojecka Street, Warsaw, Poland were arrested. The 6 Polish non-Jews who provided them food and shelter were also arrested. Historian Emmanuel Ringelblum, among those arrested, was executed within the next few days.
7 Mar 1944 The 69th transport from Drancy Concentration Camp in Paris, France departed for Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland with 1,501 prisoners. It would arrive at Auschwitz on 10 Mar and 1,311 of them would be gassed upon arrival.
7 Mar 1944 The Fascist government in northern Italy issued another order protecting Jews above the age of 70 and those with mixed ethnicities. Nevertheless, Germans in northern Italy continued to deport those within these two groups.
7 Mar 1944 Germans arrested Jewish hospices at Turin, Italy and sent them to the Fossoli transit camp. Many of them would be sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in Poland later in the month.
8 Mar 1944 3,791 Czech Jews were gassed at Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in occupied Poland. The men were killed in Crematorium III and the women and children in Crematorium II.
9 Mar 1944 Gusen II, a satellite of Mauthausen Concentration Camp, opened at Sankt Georgen an der Gusen, Austria. Prisoners of Gusen II were used to build underground aircraft and weapons factories.
10 Mar 1944 1,501 Jews arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp from Drancy Concentration Camp in Paris. 110 men and 80 women were registered into the camp, while the remaining 1,311 were sent to the gas chambers.
11 Mar 1944 About 300 Jewish women and children of Split, Yugoslavia were rounded up, sent to Jasenovac Concentration Camp, and killed.
13 Mar 1944 The Jewish ghetto of Krak├│w, Poland was closed down; as its residents were deported to the newly built Plasz├│w labor camp, 2,000 died en route.
18 Mar 1944 At 1100 hours, Auschwitz Concentration Camp prisoner Rudolf Friemel married forced laborer Margarita Ferrer at the camp's Registry Office. It was the only case where a prisoner was allowed to marry in the camp. They had met in Spain when Rudolf Friemel, an Austrian, fought as a volunteer for the Spanish Republicans in the civil war. Friemel was executed by hanging on 30 Dec 1944 for a failed attempt to escape Auschwitz. Ferrer and their child survived the war.
24 Mar 1944 200 prisoners deemed "invalid" were executed by gunfire at Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
25 Mar 1944 184 Jews who had been recently arrested from their hiding places in the Hague in the Netherlands arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
25 Mar 1944 The Hungarian Council of Ministers approved several anti-Semitic policies, including a law requiring Jews to wear the yellow Star of David to be effective on 5 Apr 1944.
28 Mar 1944 About 300 patients from two hospitals and one psychiatric institution in Trieste, Italy were deported to Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
4 Apr 1944 A transport from two hospitals and one psychiatric institution in Trieste, Italy arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland; 62 of the about 300 patients died en route, while another 103 were gassed upon arrival.
4 Apr 1944 In Poland, the first Allied aerial photographs were taken of Auschwitz I camp, the town of Auschwitz (known as Oswiecim in Polish), the I. G. Farben factories, and the Auschwitz III camp complex (also known as Monowitz).
5 Apr 1944 The SS Economic and Administrative Office submitted a report to the Supreme Command of the German SS organization noting the existence of 20 concentration camps with 165 connected labor camps. In Hungary, Jews were required to wear the yellow Star of David.
5 Apr 1944 Siegfried Lederer escaped from Auschwitz-Birkenau camp and made it safely to Czechoslovakia; he warned the Elders of the Council at Theresienstadt about the atrocities being committed at Auschwitz.
6 Apr 1944 SS-Obersturmf├╝hrer Klaus Barbie raided a children's home in Izieu, France, arresting 7 adults and 44 Jewish children.
7 Apr 1944 Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escaped from Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp in occupied Poland; they would cross the border to Slovakia three days later.
7 Apr 1944 44 Jewish children and their 7 adult caretakers, arrested in a children's home in Izieu, France on the previous day, arrived at Drancy concentration camp. They all would later be deported to Auschwitz in Poland for their execution by gassing.
10 Apr 1944 Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler, who had escaped from Auschwitz Concentration Camp three days prior, arrived in Slovakia. They would later revealing information about the camp to outside world via the Papal Nuncio in Slovakia.
13 Apr 1944 Drancy Concentration Camp in France dispatched its 71st convoy with 1,500 Jews for Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
14 Apr 1944 The first transports of Greek Jews to Auschwitz Concentration Camp departed from Athens, Greece. On the same date, a transport of 500 prisoners was sent from Stutthof Concentration Camp to Neuengamme Concentration Camp. In France, mass arrests of Jews were ordered; to provide incentive for civilians to aid this effort, payments were offered to those who led authorities to Jews in hiding.
16 Apr 1944 A transport of 1,500 Jews from Drancy Concentration Camp outside of Paris arrived at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp; it was the 71st transport from Drancy to Auschwitz. 165 men and 223 women were registered into the camp, while the remaining 1,112 were gassed.
25 Apr 1944 The Emsland concentration camps in Germany established the Kommandos Nord (Department North), which began to construct concentration camps in Norway north of the Arctic Circle; 1,404 prisoners were transferred there when completed.
2 May 1944 Two transports arrived at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp with 1,800 Jews from Budapest, Hungary and 2,000 from Topolya, Yugoslavia. 1,102 were registered into the camp, and the remaining 2,698 were sent to the gas chambers.
4 May 1944 A new German plan called for the deportation of 3,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz Concentration Camp daily, starting on 15 May 1944. A meeting was held on this date in Vienna between German SS officials, Hungarian officials, and railroad officials to determine the logistics of such an operation.
5 May 1944 Arthur Liebehenschel was named the commandant of Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland, succeeding Martin Gottfried Weiss.
11 May 1944 German SS Sturmbannf├╝hrer Richard Baer was appointed the commandant of Auschwitz I after his predecessor Liebehenschel was transferred to Majdanek Concentration Camp.
12 May 1944 39 German Sinti children, 20 boys and 19 girls, arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. They were separated from their parents as a part of Eva Justin's dissertation "The fate of Gypsy children and their offspring raised in alien environments". She became a professor at Berlin University in 1943 and the paper was published in 1944.
15 May 1944 Hungarian Jews began to be deported to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
15 May 1944 Over the following three days, about 7,500 prisoners of the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia were transferred to the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland; part of the reason was to relieve Theresienstadt's overcrowded condition in preparation of a visit by the International Red Cross and the Danish Red Cross in the following month.
21 May 1944 Four trains arrived at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland with 12,438 Hungarian Jews (3,013 from Viseu de Sus (Fels├Âvis├│), 3,274 from Nyiregyh├íza, 3,290 from S├ítoralja├║jhely, and 2,861 from Mukacevo (Munk├ícs)) and 2,000 Jews from Yugoslavia. 1,102 were registered into the camp; 2,698 were sent to the gas chambers.
23 May 1944 Four trains arrived at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland with 12,674 Hungarian Jews (3,023 from Viseu de Sus (Felsovis├│), 3,272 from Nyiregyh├íza, 3,269 from Mukacevo (Munk├ícs), and 3,110 from Oradea (Nagyv├írad)). 5 women were registered into the camp; 12,669 were sent to the gas chambers.
24 May 1944 A transport of 859 prisoners from the Pawiak prison in Warsaw, Poland arrived at Stutthof Concentration Camp in Sztutowo, occupied Danzig.
3 Jun 1944 Auschwitz II-Birkenau camp's electric fence, which had previously been turned off during the daylight hours to save energy, was now on throughout the entire day in response to the numerous escape attempts by Hungarian Jews. On the same day, four transports brought 11,569 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz (2,937 from Nagysz├Âl├Âs (Vinogradov), 2,499 from Kassa Kosice, 2,972 from Nagyv├írad (Oradea), and 3,161 from Szil├ígysoml├│ (Simleu Silvaniei)).
7 Jun 1944 The administration of the crematoriums in Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration camp ordered four sieves from the manufacturing firm Deutsche Ausr├╝stungswerke (DAW) to sift through human ashes. The sieves were to be equipped with an iron frame and the openings of the sieve screens were to be 10 millimeters in size.
20 Jun 1944 Jakob Edelstein, the former senior Jewish elder ("Judenaeltester") of the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, and his family were shot in Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
22 Jun 1944 Prisoners of the Alderney Concentration Camp in the Channel Islands were deported to Sollstedt in Germany. They would arrive in Sep 1944, where they would be transferred to Buchenwald Concentration Camp.
23 Jun 1944 Two representatives (one Danish and one Swiss) of the International Red Cross and one representative of the Danish Red Cross visited Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia for six hours; the prisoners gave them positive reports about the living conditions as they were instructed to do by the camp administration.
23 Jun 1944 Chelmno Concentration Camp in occupied Poland was re-opened for the liquidation of the ┼ü├│d┼║ Ghetto nearby. At ┼ü├│d┼║, deportations began on the same day; through 14 Jul 1944, 7,196 would be sent to Chelmno where they would be killed in gas vans.
23 Jun 1944 In the Unite States, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives of the US Congress drafted a resolution that supported the War Refugee Board and promised retribution against those responsible for atrocities in occupied Europe (Hungary in particular).
24 Jun 1944 Prisoners Edward Galinski and Mala Zimetbaum escaped from Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland but they would be re-captured in Jul 1944.
26 Jun 1944 The crematoria in Auschwitz-II Birkenau in occupied Poland received four sieves for sifting bones out of human ashes. Up above, Allied aircraft took photographs of the Auschwitz camps complex at the altitude of about 30,000 feet (about 10,000 meters).
26 Jun 1944 A transport of 3,119 Jews from Szeged, Hungary crossed into Poland at Kosice, Czechoslovakia. The train was destined for Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
29 Jun 1944 A transport of 2,502 Hungarian Jews from Auschwitz Concentration Camp arrived at Stutthof Concentration Camp.
29 Jun 1944 Out of about 1,100 prisoners at Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp in Germany with valid entry certificates for Palestine, 221 Jews were allowed to go; they would arrive in Haifa at 1700 hours on 10 Jul.
30 Jun 1944 A transport of 2,044 Jews from Athens and Corfu Island in Greece arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland; 455 men and 175 women were registered into the camp while the remainder were gassed. On the same day, another transport of 1,000 Jews from the Fossoli di Carpi transit camp in Italy also arrived; 180 men and 51 women were registered while the remainder were gassed.
1 Jul 1944 The Blohm und Voss shipyard in Hamburg, Germany began employing forced laborers provided by a subcamp of Neuengamme concentration camp.
6 Jul 1944 Chaim Weizmann, the future Israeli president, messaged British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, requesting the rail lines leading to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland to be bombed.
6 Jul 1944 Prisoners Edward Galinski and Mala Zimetbaum, escaped from Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland in Jun 1944, were re-captured. They would later be executed for this attempt.
7 Jul 1944 Mikl├│s Horthy suspended the deportation of Hungarian Jews to concentration camps.
7 Jul 1944 Six trains carrying 14,846 Hungarian Jews (3,077 from Sopron, 2,793 from P├ípa, 1,072 from Paks, 3,549 from Monor, 3,151 from ├ôbuda, and 2,204 from S├írv├ír) acrossed into occupied Poland, destined for the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
9 Jul 1944 Five trains carrying 14,212 Hungarian Jews (3,065 from Monor, 3,072 from ├ôbuda, 3,072 from Budakal├ísz, 3,079 from Monor, and 1,924 from B├ękesmegyer) acrossed the border into occupied Poland, destined for Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
10 Jul 1944 221 former prisoners of Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp and 61 former internees in Vittel, France who had been given permission by Germany to go to Palestine arrived in Haifa at 1700 hours.
18 Jul 1944 German troops round up the 2,000 Jews at Rhodes and Kos in Greece; most of them would soon be deported to the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
24 Jul 1944 Majdanek Concentration Camp became the first concentration camp to be liberated by Soviet troops (and the first to be liberated overall).
2 Aug 1944 Zigeunernacht ("Gypsy Night"): 4,000 Roma were killed and cremated at Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
5 Aug 1944 The neutral Turkish ship, Mefk├╝re, sailing from Romania to Istanbul, Turkey with 325 passengers, mainly Jews fleeing from Romania, Poland, and Hungary, was torpedoed, shelled and sunk by an unidentified submarine, believed to be the Soviet submarine SC-215. The survivors were machine gunned in the water and only 11 escaped. The dead included 37 children.
5 Aug 1944 Polish resistance fighters of Battalion Zoska, under the command of Waclaw Micuta) captured Warsaw Concentration Camp in the ghetto of Warsaw, Poland. Though small in size, this camp was the first camp with live prisoners to be captured by a military unit fighting for the Allied war effort. Some of the liberated Jewish prisoners immediately took up arms and joined the resistance.
6 Aug 1944 ┼ü├│d┼║, the last Jewish ghetto in Poland, was liquidated; its 60,000 residences were sent to Auschwitz Concentration Camp. 27,000 prisoners of various concentration camps east of the Vistula River in Poland were transferred to camps to the west. The evacuation of Kaiserwald Concentration Camp outside of Riga, Latvia began.
12 Aug 1944 The first transport of civilians arrested in Warsaw, Poland after the start of Warsaw Uprising reached Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration camp via Pruszk├│w transit camp. 1,984 males and over 3,800 females were in this transport.
23 Aug 1944 In Paris, France, the Drancy Concentration Camp, a transit camp for French Jews used during German occupation, was liberated by Allied troops.
25 Aug 1944 Allied reconnaissance aircraft flew over Auschwitz Concentration Camp and took photographs of the complex.
28 Aug 1944 Canadian journalist Raymond Arthur Davies, sponsored by the Canadian Jewish Congress, visited Majdanek Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
29 Aug 1944 As of this date, at Auschwitz Concentration Camp, the number of prisoners in the Sonderkommando, the work group created by the Germans to operate the gas chambers and crematoria, was 874.
29 Aug 1944 Canadian journalist Raymond Arthur Davies reported the general figure of one million Majdanek Concentration Camp victims to the Canadian Jewish Congress. He arrived at this estimate only one day after arriving at the camp. Nearly all experts deemed it to be a gross over-estimation.
1 Sep 1944 British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden responded to Chaim Weizmann's 6 Jul 1944 request, rejecting Weizmann's request to bomb rail lines leading to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
1 Sep 1944 Jewish prisoner Kurt Gerron began filming a propaganda motion picture at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia.
4 Sep 1944 German SS guards evacuated Fort Breendonk in Belgium.
12 Sep 1944 The filming of a propaganda motion picture at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia ended.
15 Sep 1944 Prisoners Edward Galinski and Mala Zimetbaum were executed at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland for their attempted escape from Auschwitz IIÔÇôBirkenau in Jun 1944.
18 Sep 1944 Nazi German SS doctors conducted a selection in the infirmaries of Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland. 330 men and 65 boys, all Jews, were selected and sent to the gas chambers.
18 Sep 1944 A transport with 2,500 Jews arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp from the ┼ü├│d┼║ ghetto in occupied Poland; about 80% of this transport were children between 13 and 16 years of age. 150 were registered into the camp, the remaining were all killed in the gas chambers.
23 Sep 1944 Jewish prisoners of concentration camp in Kluga, Estonia were massacred.
28 Sep 1944 Beginning on this date and through the following month, about 18,402 prisoners from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia were transferred to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
7 Oct 1944 Jewish prisoners of the Sonderkommando of Auschwitz II-Birkenau Concentration Camp organized a large revolt and escape. Crematorium IV was set on fire, while SS guards came under attack. During the havoc, some of the prisoners were successful in cutting through the perimeter fencing and got outside, but the SS guard responded and successfully rounded up all escapees and killed them all. After the revolt was put down in the camp, about 250 prisoners, including leader Zalmen Gradowski and J├│zef Deresinski, were dead. Three SS men were also killed; ten were wounded. Four Jewish women who had stolen the explosives from their workplace at the Union-Werke armaments factory, which were used during this revolt, were later hanged.
13 Oct 1944 Salaspils Concentration Camp near Riga, Latvia ceased operations.
23 Oct 1944 Hungarian and German soldiers rounded up Jews in the city of Budapest, Hungary.
25 Oct 1944 Heinrich Himmler issued orders on combating youth gangs such as Edelweiss Pirates, which had been known to harbor deserters, escaped prisoners of war, and escaped concentration camp prisoners.
28 Oct 1944 Jewish prisoner Kurt Gerron, who had completed a propaganda film at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia for the Germans, was killed at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
31 Oct 1944 14,000 Jews were transported from Slovakia to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
1 Nov 1944 In Germany, Buchenwald Concentration Camp's satellite camp Dora became an independent camp called Mittelbau-Dora; it was to become an underground aircraft and V-weapon production site.
1 Nov 1944 The gas chamber at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland was used for the last time, killing 206 Jews.
1 Nov 1944 Martin Gottfried Weiss was assigned to oversee the M├╝hldorf subcamp of Dachau Concentration Camp.
8 Nov 1944 25,000 Jews were forced to walk over 100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest, Hungary to the Austrian border, followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending at Mauthausen Concentration Camp.
21 Nov 1944 The Hinzert Concentration Camp administratively became a satellite camp of Buchenwald Concentration Camp.
16 Dec 1944 Mauthausen Concentration Camp's satellite camp Gusen III began operations in the town of Lungitz with 262 prisoners; it would eventually grow to house 67,667 prisoners before the end of the war, about half of which would not survive.
22 Dec 1944 Two Ukrainian peasants, Hermann and Emma Kurras, were executed after a trial for hiding thirteen Jews who had escaped from a concentration camp.
25 Dec 1944 Three baby girls were born in the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
28 Dec 1944 The first 150 Jewish prisoners from Buchenwald Concentration Camp arrived at the HASAG Leipzig subcamp near the village of Fl├Âsenberg, Germany.
30 Dec 1944 150 female prisoners of Auschwitz Concentration Camp were employed in the demolition squad (Abbruchkommando), working on the demolition of crematorium III. 50 female prisoners worked in the forestry-demolition squad (Geh├Âlz-Abbruchkommando), which was filling in the incineration pits and covering them with grass and planting small trees on the grounds of crematorium IV.
1 Jan 1945 100 male and 100 female Polish prisoners of the Gestapo from block 11 in Auschwitz I camp were transferred by SS doctor Fritz Klein to the chief of Auschwitz II-Birkenau Crematorium V Erich Muhsfeldt. Muhsfeldt's men executed these police prisoners by firing squad.
5 Jan 1945 The last session of the police summary court of the Kattowitz Gestapo took place in block 11 in Auschwitz I camp. Around 100 Polish prisoners were condemned to death, to be executed by firing squad on the next day. The court was presided by Johannes Thuemmler. These prisoners were under the jurisdiction of the Gestapo and not of the commandant of the concentration camp.
6 Jan 1945 Four Jewish women, Ella Gartner, R├│za Robota, Regina Safir, and Estera Wajsblum, were executed by hanging in the female camp of Auschwitz Concentration Camp; they had smuggled explosives out of their workplace which were used during the 7 Oct 1944 uprising in the camp. About 100 other Auschwitz prisoners were also executed on this date, having sentenced to death by the Kattowitz Gestapo on the previous day; they faced a firing squad at Auschwitz II-Birkenau and were sent to Crematorium V. These prisoners were among the last to be executed at Auschwitz.
10 Jan 1945 Female prisoners of Uckermark Concentration Camp who were not able to work were exterminated.
15 Jan 1945 German report noted that the total number of prisoners in concentration camps was 714,211; there were about 40,000 guards at the camps.
16 Jan 1945 Soviet troops liberated concentration camps at Czestochowa (800 prisoners) and ┼ü├│d┼║ (870 prisoners) in Poland.
17 Jan 1945 67,012 prisoners were present at Auschwitz Concentration Camp's last evening roll call; they would soon embark on the Death March. Meanwhile, Nazi doctor Josef Mengele began to destroy his laboratories at sector BIIf of Birkenau camp; he would soon evacuate the camp with records of his experiments on twins, dwarfs, and disabled people.
18 Jan 1945 66,000 prisoners from the Auschwitz Concentration Camp were transferred into Germany.
18 Jan 1945 The last of the Jewish forced laborers at Chelmno Concentration Camp in occupied Poland were executed; 15-year-old Simon Srebnik was the only survivor.
20 Jan 1945 Soviet troops arrived at the Chelmno Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.
27 Jan 1945 Reconnaissance troops of the Soviet 100th Infantry Division discovered the prisoners' infirmary at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp at about 0900 hours. The remainder of the division arrived 30 minutes later. Soviet troops entered the main camp in the afternoon where they fought off the remaining German resistance at the cost of 231 lives. By this time, only 7,000 prisoners remained to be liberated in the entire Auschwitz system; the bulk of had been marched away previously.
5 Feb 1945 The RSHA transported approximately 1,200 Jews from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia to Switzerland.
3 Mar 1945 Prisoners at Hinzert satellite camp of Buchenwald Concentration Camp were evacuated.
5 Mar 1945 The factory at the HASAG Leipzig slave labour camp near the village of Fl├Âsenberg, Germany was destroyed by Allied aircraft.
8 Mar 1945 Between 1,070 and 1,150 Hungarian Jews arrived at the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia. They were originally deported to the Austrian border in 1944.
12 Mar 1945 German Jew Anne Frank died in Belsen Concentration Camp.
30 Mar 1945 Jewish women being led to their deaths at the Ravensbr├╝ck Concentration Camp in Germany fought against their SS guards in an attempt to escape. Nine of them got away, but they were soon captured and were killed with the rest of the group.
4 Apr 1945 Troops of US 89th Infantry Division captured Ohrdruf Concentration Camp in Germany, which was a satellite of Buchenwald Concentration Camp.
6 Apr 1945 In occupied Czechoslovakia, International Red Cross representatives visited the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp.
6 Apr 1945 15,000 prisoners of Buchenwald Concentration Camp in Germany were evacuated by German authorities.
6 Apr 1945 Prisoners of Moringen Concentration Camp who could walk were sent on a death march toward the east; those who remained would be liberated by troops of the Western Allies three days later.
9 Apr 1945 Moringen Concentration Camp was liberated by Allied troops.
11 Apr 1945 Prisoners of Buchenwald Concentration Camp freed themselves after most of the guards had fled. In the Buchenwald satellite camp of Langenstein, the US 83rd Infantry Division arrived; it had about 1,100 prisoners at the time.
12 Apr 1945 American troops began arriving at Buchenwald Concentration Camp near Weimar, Germany.
12 Apr 1945 The Westerbork Concentration Camp at Hooghalen in the Netherlands was liberated by the Canadian 2nd Infantry Division.
13 Apr 1945 The HASAG Leipzig slave labour camp in Germany was officially closed; the remaining 1,100 prisoners were transported by train to Mauthasen Concentration Camp, several hundred of whom did not survive the journey.
14 Apr 1945 On this day and the next, 423 Danish Jews were transferred from the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia back to their home country via trucks hired by the Swedish Red Cross.
15 Apr 1945 British troops liberated Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp in Germany, which had about 40,000 prisoners at the time.
15 Apr 1945 King Christian X secured the release of 423 Danish Jews from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia.
16 Apr 1945 1,700 Jewish prisoners at Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp were loaded onto open freight railcars starting at 0500 hours, with very little food and water. When the train began to move out of the station, US aircraft strafed, killing an unknown number of prisoners. Those who were injured by the US attack were executed by SS guards.
17 Apr 1945 The evacuation of non-Jewish prisoners of Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp began, with 2,000 prisoners being forced to march toward Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany on foot.
19 Apr 1945 16,000 of the 25,000 to 30,000 prisoners still in the Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp system were ordered to march toward Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany by rail and on foot.
20 Apr 1945 Between 13,500 and 15,000 prisoners were transferred from Buchenwald and Gross-Rosen subcamps to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in occupied Czechoslovakia over the following 20 days.
20 Apr 1945 Thousands of prisoners were marched out of Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp in Germany toward the northeast, ahead of oncoming Soviet troops. Many of them would die en route.
20 Apr 1945 The train containing Jewish prisoners from Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp was disabled by an US air attack. SS guards forced the 750 surviving prisoners out of the open freight cars, executed 140 prisoners who could not walk, and forced the remaining about 610 prisoners to march toward the Theresienstadt ghetto in occupied Czechoslovakia.
21 Apr 1945 International Red Cross representatives visited the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp.
21 Apr 1945 Thousands of prisoners were marched out of Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp in Germany toward the northeast, ahead of oncoming Soviet troops. Many of them would die en route.
22 Apr 1945 Polish 2nd Infantry Division captured Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, Oranienburg, Germany, with a prisoner population of about 3,000 at the time.
23 Apr 1945 Prisoners of Sachsenhausen and Ravensbr├╝ck Concentration Camps in Germany began to be evacuated by German authorities; some Jews were massacred by SS guards this week as the last massacres of the war.
23 Apr 1945 A group of non-Jewish Flossenb├╝rg Concentration Camp prisoners arrived at Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany after a six-day march. On the same day, troops of the US 90th Infantry Division liberated the main camp of Flossenb├╝rg, finding 1,527 prisoners still in the camp; about 300 of them would die despite receiving care from US Army medics. Meanwhile, several groups of prisoners who were marched out of Flossenb├╝rg in the preceding days were found and liberated by US Army troops in the surrounding area.
24 Apr 1945 Dachau Concentration Camp in southern Germany was evacuated. Between 6,000 and 7,000 prisoners embarked on a death march southward to Eurasburg, where they would turn east toward the Tegernsee. Thousands of them would die of exhaustion, hunger, exposure, and execution during the six-day march.
27 Apr 1945 US 12th Armoured Division and 103rd Infantry Division discovered seven sites of the Kaufering Concentration Camp in southern Germany.
28 Apr 1945 A group of Austrian resistance fighters became the last victims of gassings at Mauthausen Concentration Camp.
29 Apr 1945 SS-Untersturmf├╝hrer Heinrich Wicker became the final commandant of Dachau Concentration Camp in southern Germany, replacing Johannes Otto, who had been in that role for less than one day. Wicker would share the same fate as his predecessor, as American troops of the 3rd Battalion, 157th Infantry Regiment, US 45th Infantry Division, commanded by Colonel Felix Sparks, would enter Dachau Concentration Camp on this day. Brigadier General Henning Linden of 222nd Infantry Regiment, US 42nd Infantry Division accepted the formal surrender from Wicker. Men of US 157th and 122nd Infantry Regiments were accused of executing a number of German SS prisoners of war, in the camp and in the nearby hamlet of We├čling, before a colonel intervened.
2 May 1945 Commandant Karl Rahm of the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp relinquished control of the camp to the International Red Cross.
3 May 1945 RAF Typhoon fighter-bombers, looking for ships transporting German troops to Norway where it was believed they planned to make a last stand, attacked and sank the troopships Cap Arcona and Thielbek, which were actually loaded with concentration camp inmates under transportation. The full death toll had never been established but could be as high as 8,000 from the two ships, including crews and SS guards.
4 May 1945 British troops entered Neuengamme Concentration Camp near Hamburg, Germany.
5 May 1945 The Council of Jewish Elders at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in Czechoslovakia, operating under Commandant Karl Rahm, met with the commandant for the last time. The council was dissolved after that meeting. Later that day, Rahm fled the camp ahead of the advancing Soviet troops.
5 May 1945 US 11th Armored Division entered Mauthausen Concentration Camp in occupied Austria region of Germany.
8 May 1945 Soviet troops liberated Theresienstadt Concentration Camp; about 30,000 prisoners were present at the camp at the time.
9 May 1945 Soviet troops captured Stutthof Concentration Camp near Danzig, Germany (now Gdansk, Poland).
29 May 1945 The staff of Hadamar Euthanasia Center Aktion in western Germany murdered its final victim, a mentally handicapped boy.
7 Jun 1945 The Western Allies made German citizens in their occupation zones watch films about the Buchenwald and Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camps.
15 Mar 1946 At Camp Tomato in Minden, Germany, Rudolf H├Âss confessed to having supervised the murder of countless Jews at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.

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Visitor Submitted Comments

1. Susan Agronick says:
11 Mar 2008 03:12:10 PM

My heart breaks every time I see these images,BUT THEY ARE NESSESARY TO REMIND US TO NEVER FORGET! I think these people in the photos are passing away and the anti-semetic rhetoric that the camps never existed,come back every once and a while, we must never let these people who were murdered by the German Nazi population.
I have distant cousins from Poland and I know they don't exist anymore because they were killed by the same citizens who a few years before were their neighbors, their customers, even friends. One day these very people turned away and allowed their pain to go on, clinging to a philosophy that told them these people were the cause of all the disorder in their life. I wish I could bring them all back to life, but alas even the very survivors of the camps are dying off.
May we all learn not to tolerate this disgusting rhetoric again!
2. victoria loves tiffany and tiffany loves victoria says:
14 Mar 2008 05:24:07 PM

we love this but wer not geeks
3. victoria loves tiffany and tiffany loves victoria says:
14 Mar 2008 05:26:49 PM

that pic is so sad when u look at it .it makes u think
4. victoria loves tiffany and tiffany loves victoria says:
14 Mar 2008 05:29:11 PM

sorry u spelled july wrong
5. kaylie says:
20 Mar 2008 09:31:50 AM

this is very intresting but very sad at the same time....:(
6. Anonymous says:
20 Mar 2008 12:47:27 PM

i know it vary sad
7. Anonymous says:
20 Mar 2008 12:52:25 PM

8. Anonymous says:
20 Mar 2008 12:55:35 PM

people should not have to be straved and homeless they have feelings
9. victoria says:
20 Mar 2008 02:45:09 PM

who ever wrote 4 3 2 is just being stupid cause my greatgreatgrandad was a jew and he died my greatgranddad barely got away
10. Bree says:
20 Mar 2008 02:55:52 PM

sorry victoria i also think this is vary sad and its nothing to laugh about
11. Anonymous says:
21 Mar 2008 04:23:53 PM

i think the holocaustis sad and depressing.the holocaust is about how aldof hitler wanted to rule the world and kill all the jews. he felt that jews were unfit for life and he almost acomplished both of his goal and ended up killing 9 million people. 6 million of them were jews that meant men, women, and children.
12. Anonymous says:
16 May 2008 08:25:01 AM

The holocaust is an important part of Canadian history too, keep in mind, Canada was there when all this was happening. And it's happening again, maybe not to the degree that Hitler took it to, but the battle in Afganastan will turn into a war eventually. And where will Canada be? Right on the front lines defending our rights and freedoms like we always have. In the end of both the previous world wars, Canada made a major difference in the outcome, we have to remember that, and be proud. Because we may end up doing in again.
13. kaylie stevens says:
26 Jun 2008 09:25:44 PM

i think this is a very interesting and sad subject and i agree with bree and victoria that it is not somthing to laughf bout hitler was a very evil man and should have done those ppl better dont you think?
14. Kiezauna Gallimore says:
15 Oct 2008 10:10:16 AM

This is all so awfull
and all the information is very usefull i wasnt alive at the time but i can some how picture the horros of the ages
if anything like that happend to day

may god help us

thank you for the information
it helped me alot with my project
if any one has anymore information please email me
15. Anonymous says:
15 Apr 2009 06:36:07 AM

16. Trevor says:
19 May 2009 03:57:25 PM

you all are pretty ignorate. don't actually listen to anything that these people comment about. 99% of it is based on their 2nd grade history teacher's knowledge on the holocaust, which she obtain from only reading "night". the holocaust was bad i very much understand this, but how is a bunch of grade school kids repeating their teachers ideas on the internet a good use of anyones time. don't draw conclusion about subject from sources with so lil knowledge and so much bias (im talking about the comment not the article) and dont forget u all dont have to be bleeding hearts about the subject just cause u know someone who know's someone's uncle who was in a camp. if u approach it more objectively u can weed out the idiots from the intellectuals. basicly im saying grow up think of urself and no one here care about ur opinon. i of course realise u will now want doubt my comment aswell, not just cause predujuste against an different view but also because what i wrote above. i encourage the critsizuam and love that i just made u read think and think more indepently.

*I re summited this to let yall know my name

PCE im out.
17. Anonymous says:
25 Jul 2009 07:53:51 AM

we must never agian let this happen
18. guess who meeee lol says:
3 Dec 2009 05:02:02 PM

very sad indeed
19. Anonymous says:
28 Jan 2010 09:18:26 AM

i hat the things tht the people did to the jews but its weird cuz im not a jew and im 14 haha
20. Anonymous says:
31 Jan 2010 07:00:54 PM

It's hard to think what happened to the Jews and so many people in the holocaust. Some people think it's so cruel they refuse to even believe it happened.
21. Anonymous says:
10 Feb 2010 04:51:31 PM

make's me want to cry
22. Anonymous says:
9 Mar 2010 09:53:20 PM

The Holocaust is so sad. It disgusts me that people could actually just go and kill poeple like that, just because their different. What disgusts me even more is that it could have been MY ancestors doing this. I cry when we learn about the Holocaust and all these other inhumane things people have done out of spite. people are raised to hate, and its just sad people are like that. Schindlers List is a movie I've seen, and it is very good at portraying the way things were then. I starting balling when they showed all the little kids going off in trucks to die, and how they were oblvious to what was going to happen to them, and how they were waving and smiling at their parents. It's just so sad. :(
23. Anonymous says:
23 Mar 2010 06:41:27 AM

it pains me to think that all this happened. My half aunt has german ancestry. So it really makes me angry when she makes racist comments, especially when it was her ancestors that commited this awful crime. It also pains me to think that no matter how many pictures we have to remind us of what happened we continue to discriminate and no one seems to do anything about it. Look at the genocide in Rwanda in 1993 some tried but no one really did a thing about it, an entire race nearly went extinct because of discrimination and hate and barely anyone did a *** thing about it. All though we must respect the brave few who did do there best to make a difference. And whether we know it or not there are other genocides going on today, The U.N just tries to keep it under wraps becasue they aren't doing anytrhing about it bcuz they are minor countries. I think it's horrible there all for humanity but yet they discriminate against small countries as if they don't matter, regardless they are still poepl and they should still give a ***
24. Anonymous says:
12 May 2010 06:29:56 PM

The Holocaust is not something to laugh about. It is very real and is one of the most terrible events in the history of mankind. I tear up at the pictures of the mass graves and such, but it is important to never forget. Never forget.
There were people other than Jewish people who perished in WWII. Of the millions of people dead of the Holocaust, I've heard just under half of them were not Jewish - for instance, the Roma gypsy people were almost wiped out completely.
Never forget.
25. Anonymous says:
26 May 2010 07:03:23 PM

Sad...how could the nazis do this to such innocent people!? this is so wrong.
26. Anonymous says:
17 Aug 2010 02:32:28 AM

sad, should not of happened
27. Deb says:
3 Oct 2010 01:34:18 PM

That's an euphemism. It's horrible. Disgusting REVOLTING.
28. Anonymous says:
23 Nov 2010 04:25:26 PM

its disgusting how someone could have done this to so many people.. still after knowing he could have had some Jewish blood in him..
29. Anonymous says:
8 Jan 2011 08:05:47 PM

what the heck was wrong with those sick peoples mind? The jews are and were just normal people!Thats sooo soooo... like sad and evil. I know that im only 13 but ,god, even i can see that killing people just because of their is sick,wrong,sad and cruel.
30. Anonymous says:
8 Jan 2011 08:12:06 PM

Im ashamed of this evil past
31. Anonymous says:
19 Jan 2011 09:04:52 AM

No-one who writes so poorly should ever expect to be taken seriously. Grow up & learn to communicate properly. I dare say the second-grade teacher to whom you refer knows a good deal more than you do about the Holocaust.

I am neither Jewish nor a teacher.

There will always be controversy & misinformation about something so inconceivably horrible as the Holocaust. I lived in Germany for 3 1/2 years in the late 1970s. I knew a couple who had managed to escape from Auschwitz when they were children. Anna, the wife, was literally missing half of her face, including one eye, because when she was a little girl, she & her family were starving, as were a great many Europeans at that time. One night she was caught by an SS guard stealing a fallen apple from underneath one of HitlerÔÇÖs orchard trees. He bashed in half of her head with the butt of his rifle & left her there to die. But Anna survived. When she told me about that, I knew just where it had happened. What had been Luftwaffe barracks was, at the time I was there, the U.S. Army family housing where I lived with my family. Karl, AnnaÔÇÖs husband told me one day that it was surprisingly easy for them to escape from Auschwitz & that so many didnÔÇÖt try because they were so afraid of the Nazis.

I am not easy to convince & IÔÇÖm actually regarded as skeptical by most who know me. In fact, I generally believe in thinking for myself as you suggest. I have probably been doing that since long before you were born. I have studied the Holocaust off & on for about 45 years now, including talking with eye-witnesses. I have been to Dachau & seen for myself. My personal experiences do not make me an expert, & I know that. The Holocaust wasnÔÇÖt just a Jewish issue. Some studies have concluded that roughly as many non-Jews as Jews were murdered by the Nazis. There is evidence that as many as eleven million innocent civilians were killed by the Nazis. There were a great many more killed than were recorded in the ÔÇťofficialÔÇŁ Nazi records. Many of the details will probably remain unknown for eternity. But it did happen. And it really was as bad as they say ÔÇô probably much worse.

We must NEVER FORGET lest we be doomed to repeatedly relive the hell of the WWII Holocaust.
32. Nicki Minaj says:
4 Apr 2011 10:15:54 AM

This is so cruel what people could do to so many innocent people and children. This information is so heart-wrenching.
33. Justin Bieber says:
4 Apr 2011 07:57:50 PM

I agree with you guys. I dont know why they had the power to do this to these innocent people for so long and no one could do anything about it. I'm just so glad that the Germans and Jews worked this out enough so this all wasnt still going on today.
34. basia says:
25 Apr 2011 02:54:21 PM

my mother& father lived through this horrific event along with their families.my uncle Br.Cyril Dardzinski, a franciscan monk, helped thousands of Jewish and Polish people & was later executed. My mother at age 16 had to dig through a ditch of hundreds of bodies to find him for burial. i have pics of this. This has impacted our family tremendously.
35. Anonymous says:
12 May 2011 08:56:08 AM

No puedo creer todo lo que paso y esta gente se sigue peleando nada., estoy de acuerdo que quieran expresar su punto de vista , o sus bromas ...pero sin ser ni fanatica religiosa, ni judia , ni alemana ...lo uico es entender como Benito Juarez , un indio zapoteca que llego a ser presidente de Mexico "El respeto a el derecho ajeno es la paz" el dia que entiendamos sus palabras , aunque hablemos diferentes idiomas , sera el dia en que reinara la paz en el mundo ...
36. Anonymous says:
22 Jun 2011 04:49:28 PM

the sad thing is, aushwitz has brought many to a realization. we are no longer surprised at how inhuman people can be, but how many people have survived this long.
37. Steve McCarthy says:
4 Dec 2011 11:13:33 AM

21 April 1945 - members of the 386th brigade, 97th Infantry, liberate Flossenberg
38. Anonymous says:
4 Dec 2011 12:35:05 PM

sure but there is not the video convict because that the wehrmacht obtained the victory
39. Anonymous says:
7 Mar 2012 09:43:24 AM

that is soo sad to believe what happened to 11 million ppl
40. Anonymous says:
23 Mar 2012 10:26:27 AM

i've reconciled that despite how many memoirs I've read or will read about the Holocaust and the Shoah, I'll never be able to understand the depths of depravity to which mankind stooped. I take comfort in knowing that those who perished were freed from this world of illusion, that they were no longer "contained by their perimeters." That they were the true victors in every sense of the word.
41. Anonymous says:
24 Apr 2012 06:23:39 PM

My grandmothers brother may have been one of the 728 prisoners sent to Auschwitz in June 1940. My Aunt remembers her Mother getting two letters. The first saying that her brother was taken in the middle of the night (He was some type of village official) then a second letter months later saying that he had died of pneumonia . It's difficult to trace or confirm because so many records have been destroyed.
42. Anonymous says:
3 Dec 2012 06:28:12 AM

wow i can belive on how they treaded the prisioners. that is very bad.:(
43. Anonymous says:
27 Mar 2013 08:19:33 AM

My father "WASYL WLADYLO" was in Dachau and Natzweiler concentration camps. He was a member of the French Resistance and also was in the Polish army. I remember first hand stories of how the Nazis used to burn people alive and the "morning lineup for hanging" he said "I used to eat rocks and dirt to stay alive" it's all true.
44. Anonymous says:
8 Apr 2013 01:48:17 PM

We are studying this topic in school, it is horrible what the Nazis did to these poor innocent people
45. Anonymous says:
15 May 2013 02:07:57 PM

poor peolpe
46. Goldie says:
30 Oct 2013 08:50:22 PM

First....who is reading this site? Are they in pre-school? The language, grammar, spelling of almost everyone on here is atrocious. Not to mention the context is definitely not that of an adult.

That's great that kids are reading this and learning but they also need to pay attention in school so that they can be taken seriously when they post on ANY site but specifically such a serious one as this.

Now...to the issue. I get really angry at they nay-sayers in relation to the holocaust. It happened. PERIOD. The scary thing is that now that most of the survivors are dying off, there will be no one to give first-hand accounts and the idiots who say it didn't happen can say it's hearsay.

Pictures like this don't lie. These pics were taken long before Photoshopping was a reality. If all the photos were from one source you might be able to question it. But there are photos taken by a myriad of individuals.

Bottom line...this country is dangerously close to a civil war. One of the first things Hitler did before he became the tyrant was to remove private weapons from the populace. There are several quotes of him saying you can't control an armed populace. Obama is trying hard to do this. Don't hide your heads in the sand.

And if you ARE young children, don't grow up to be blind - that is if you GET to grow up. There is talk, and I don't claim to be able to prove it, that there are concentration camps ready here. No president has even thought of using them....until Obama. Wake up.
47. Anonymous says:
28 Dec 2013 11:28:56 AM

This will sound unbelievable but I met an elderly gentlemen in tracks,as we both bent to buy cat food,we spoke of our love of our pets and ended up talking of when he helped liberate Austwitz what he told me haunts me to this day.
48. Anonymous says:
3 Feb 2014 03:09:17 PM

25 Dec 1944 Three baby girls were born in the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.... My mom is one from this three baby girls ... her mom left her after, as she was 5 mounths old and she never saw her again,, she found her but her mom didn't want to see her or talk to her.... I'm sooo proud of my mom, she is the best mom in the world and I love her from all my heart.
49. Num says:
24 Feb 2014 11:12:22 PM

Search for "History of Romania part 15 - Holocaust" on youtube to see the lies of the anti-Romanian propaganda exposed.
50. Anonymous says:
12 Mar 2014 12:28:46 PM

I have read some of the comments against the fact that they didn't exist, I am in my 60's and watched all the documentaries of the discoveries of the camps as did my wife who is older than me and is somewhat of an expert on the subject, believe me they did exist. I worked for a Jewish company for 20 years in the 1970's and meet many of the survivors I saw the tattoo's on the arms of those survivors. I am a Christian and in my 30's I decided to train to be a Methodist Lay Preacher and was behind on my studies so I thought I would catch up on my homework and was reading a book on Christian Theology whilst on an Air Canada flight to Vancouver. I had been upgraded to First Class and the man sitting next to me and said how could I read the book and explained my reasons. He replied that he had been a Christian until 1945 he explained he was a Canadian Doctor and was one of the first Doctors to go in to Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen and had to treat the dying from whom he received first hand knowledge of the Horrors of what had gone on in the Camps but he said the German SS had left behind so much evidence. I will not repeat what he told me but he told me how could God have let this happen 6,000,000 people killed by the Germans he told how much he struggled with his faith but he had to leave his faith the biggest decision in his life. So look at Germany today 2014 the strongest Country in the EU and they did not pay the price for mass murder and it wasn't just Jews but British and Allied troops captured and who had tried to escape from regular Prisoner of War Camps too many times. I believe that every Child in the EU should be told in the Classroom about what went on and the live footage taken at the time they should be shown it. The Japanese were just as bad and Allied troops from all over the world should be told how they treated by them, starved and worked to DEATH. The Japanese are another of the Countries who got way without punishment and their economy is as strong as Germany because we actually help them put their Countries back together. I am still a Christian and believe that payment for the sins committed by both the Germans and Japanese have not been paid in this life but they will be. The memory of what really happened should never be forgotten.
51. Anonymous says:
16 Mar 2014 07:52:49 AM

Why did America and Britain send back ships of Jewish escapees? This should be researched.
52. Commenter identity confirmed David Stubblebine says:
16 Mar 2014 08:12:30 PM

To Anonymous of Comment #51:
Who says America and Britain sent back ships of Jewish escapees? What prompted posting that question here; I found no mention of it elsewhere on the page? You say ÔÇťThis should be researched.ÔÇŁ YouÔÇÖre right. Why donÔÇÖt you do it? Why donÔÇÖt you do it PRIOR to posting unsubstantiated and inflammatory comments like this one?
53. Max Igan says:
19 Mar 2014 10:03:10 PM

In the spirit of open, truthful and transparent discourse in this highly senitive matter, and in looking at the chronology provided here... why is the Transfer Agreement, which saw the removal of 60,000 jews from Germany to Palestine between 1933 and 1941, and the $100million provided by Germany to ensure the safe arrival of the jews and set up the basic foundation for what would later become modern day Israel (all which is well documented fact) not addressed in this report?
54. Anonymous says:
29 Mar 2014 03:39:38 PM

22 Dec 1944 Two Ukrainian peasants, Hermann and Emma Kurras, were executed after a trial for hiding thirteen Jews who had escaped from a concentration camp.

* These two people were my great-grandparents and one of their three sons is still alive today (my grandfather). I have spent about 10 years trying to find information on them and it is my dream to somehow locate a photograph of them... hopefully one day, I'll find one!
55. don says:
13 Apr 2014 01:59:55 AM

53. - Because we cannot be critical of Israel in any way whatsoever, lest we be tarred with the 'Anti-Semite' brush. Sadly, Israel today is becoming reminiscent of the Nazi mind-set in its treatment of Palestinians.

Mod: I don't blame you for not posting this.
56. Anonymous says:
1 Jul 2014 04:05:47 AM

"Majdanek was burned in attempt to mask its presence as the Germans retreated from the region but the remains of gas chambers were evident."
the biggest BS ever...How many years must past, how many real evidence has to be shown to the world, so people can stop talking of this bigges hoax of the history of mankind. Shame ! Shame! Shame!
57. Ileavazan says:
1 Jul 2014 04:17:29 AM

You will never publsh my post but I'm sure Millions knoaw that all this is one big BS Zionist propaganda made by the "Big Three" who in a reality come up with the holohoax in order to cover up their own crimes ageinst the humanity.

Those so call "good guys" during the WW2 were and still are the " ranting jackass(es) who led people to ruin" ..Basically they went against Germany to keep doing their own crimes and tyrannic agendas against the humanity... I'm not sure if you are aware but by the time of the outbreak of war in 1939, one of the main character during WW2 or as I call it -" the bad guy" was Britain who ruled over the largest colonial empire in history, holding more millions of people against their will ( ( means colonized, enslave and kill) than any regime before or since. This vast empire included what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Africa. ( this is all fact - trust me)

In the other hand the other main character of WW2 or "the good guy" was USSR, the most evil and tyrannic society known to man, and with vastly more cruel despotism than Hitler's Germany, under which over 20 Million Russians perished, by the time of Stalin's death. ( it is also well documented fact) .

So the third of the "big three" or " the ugly"- (USA) helped substantially to maintain Stalin's tyranny, and to aid the Soviet Union in oppressing additional millions of Europeans, while also helping Britain to maintain or re-establish its imperial rule over many millions in Asia and Africa. Moreover, under of pretext of "spreading democracy" it turned to one of the most oppressive and war-loving country in the past 70 years..

In fact after WW2, Europe for the first time in its history was no longer master of its own destiny, but was instead under the domination of two great outer European powers, the US & USSR, which for political and ideological reasons had no special interest in, or concern for, European culture or Western civilization and managed very well to destroy it.
58. Anonymous says:
2 Jul 2014 06:05:49 AM

Hey Anonymous #52 the facts exist , so don't try to make people stupid or point finger at them just becouse they asked a reasnoble questions on this pro-Jewsh article which allow ony brainwash or retarded people to make comments without knowing the real facts behind the biggest lie in the history . And if you so smart go and google " MS St. Louis " ( a German ocean liner) carring 937 Jews refugge whom US , Cuba and Canada refused to grantet entries. Eventually they have been returned back to Europe where most of them died in some of the 42,000 Consentration Labor cams ( take a wild guess why the number is so big and why no one officially like to discussed that in mainstream media?).

And YES for your information, which you don't dare to search becouse of your hypocracy or stupidity , during the period between 1938-1948 Britain did not view Jewish refugees in a humanitarian , therefore they could be deported ( and were) back to Germany.

AND YES ! US State Department policies made it very difficult for refugees to obtain entry visas. Despite the ongoing persecution of Jews in Germany,he State Department's attitude was influenced by the economic hardships of the Depression, which intensified grassroots antisemitism, isolationism, and xenophobia. Also the official ( and correct propaganda at the time was ) that the Jews are Communists (which was true) , therefore threat for National security. Unfortunatelly, you still goung to stay ignorent ( or hypocrat ) becouse this message will not be posted by this site, just like they ignore my other two comments .

59. Ilea Vazan says:
3 Jul 2014 01:05:49 AM

I have to apologised to this site for previously accusing them of not publishing my posts ! Obviously it takes time before any posts goes live , but to me the reason that they did not appeared was because of my orthodox POV to the official version of the topic ! So, I do thank you for that !
60. Commenter identity confirmed David Stubblebine says:
3 Jul 2014 09:56:53 PM


Your discourteous writing style aside, thank you for providing at least a few tidbits of factual information, particularly the reference to the MS St Louis. This was more than Anonymous #51 did. I had not heard of this episode before but I am glad to have learned of it now. The US Holocaust Memorial Museum has a well researched and thorough article on the voyage of the St Louis in 1939: http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005267. However you overstate the facts a little: there were initially 938 passengers (not 937) and 254 ultimately died in the camps (27 percent is not ÔÇťmostÔÇŁ ÔÇô but it is still a lot). The primary point remains, however, that these refugees sought safety in the west and were turned away.

There is some truth in the claim that the Human Rights records for the United States and Great Britain for this period both have some disturbing blemishes, the voyage of the St Louis being only one. But I donÔÇÖt think this is an exercise to find who was completely blameless during the war years. That would be a contest with no winners. The effort should be aimed at assessing who, on balance, was MOSTLY on the right side the moral questions ÔÇô LARGELY on the right side would be even better. On that basis, I remain quite comfortable believing the US & UK, warts and all, had it over Germany head and shoulders.

You raise the matter of the strange alliance the US & UK had with the USSR. This was an odd partnership, to be sure, but it was an alliance of necessity. This is perhaps the most classic example of the principle ÔÇťThe enemy of my enemy is my friend.ÔÇŁ It was not a perfect association.

Throttle back the vitriol a little bit and your remarks can add an interesting perspective to the conversation.
61. ileavazan says:
3 Jul 2014 10:13:22 PM

My last post #58 was addressed to Mr. David Stubblebine , which not on purpose I've indicated as Anonymous #52. So, Mr. Stubblebine, I do understand you racial and pro- American POV to a simple, substantiated and fair question from Anonymous #51 , so like it or not they are facts on the issue, which I've already pointed out for your information ( see post #58) , so in reality that make your comments inflammatory for people that are not ignorant, hypocritical and brainwashed .
62. Sam says:
2 Aug 2014 01:03:34 AM

Having read the article, what disturbs me is that whilst this highlights the way the Jews were treated, no mention is made of those from the gypsy communities, physically disabled, those with learning disabilities and were in mental homes who were also treated in the same manner. When the various Holocaust memorials etc, give these people, as much attention as the Jewish community, I will stop suspecting that sections of the Jewish community, are using this a prpoganda to get sympathy for the way they treat their neighbours.
63. Anonymous says:
6 Dec 2014 12:23:02 PM

12 Mar 1945 German Jew Anne Frank died in Belsen Concentration Camp

Anne Frank was Dutch.
64. Commenter identity confirmed C. Peter Chen says:
6 Dec 2014 07:57:41 PM

To Anonymous of 6 Dec 2014: Anne Frank was born in Frankfurt, Germany. Her family moved to the Netherlands in the 1930s to escape Nazi persecution.
65. mrzol says:
9 Jan 2015 10:20:44 PM

How could humans to this to other humans?
66. Wojciech says:
22 Jan 2015 07:31:02 AM

While there are some important facts published in the timeline, I have'nt found any mention of the reports that the Polish Underground State sent to the West reporting the atrocities inflicted on the Jews by the German troops in occupied Poland. In 1942 Jan Karski travelled to the West with a report which he then took to the United Nations and showed to Roosevelt who refused o accept the information given him. Likewise the Americans and British subsequently refused requests made by the Polish Government to bomb the gas chambers and crematoria of Auschwitz, even though they were flying over them to bomb the chemical works of Monowitz.
67. Commenter identity confirmed David Stubblebine says:
22 Jan 2015 06:32:45 PM


Mainly, I think your point is well taken. It may be that the Allies deserve to be criticized for under-responding to what they knew about the German treatment of Jews but a few points in your comment deserve some clarification. First, the phrase ÔÇťtook it to the United NationsÔÇŁ has a very different meaning today than it did during the war. The UN as the congress of nations we know today did not exist until October 1945. Second, ÔÇťRoosevelt refused to accept the informationÔÇŁ is not completely fair since it was Roosevelt himself who suggested the term ÔÇťUnited NationsÔÇŁ as a reference to the western Allies in the 11-nation declaration issued Jan 17, 1942. That declaration forcefully denounced the German systematic elimination of the Jews that was taking place in Poland and was in direct response to the message from Jan Karski and the Polish government-in-exile describing the situation. That declaration was also largely the product of Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill (with some urging from Eleanor Roosevelt) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Declaration_by_Members_of_the_United_Nations].

The story and the full text of the declaration was a front page item of the Jan 18, 1942 New York Times. There were no follow-up stories and the truly sad part (at least for me as an American) is that there was no discernable public outrage following the storyÔÇÖs publication.
68. Wojciech says:
23 Jan 2015 10:00:07 AM

Karski reported in his book published in 1944 "In the Secret State" that Roosevelt when told of the atyrocities committed against the Jews enquired what had happened to the horses in Poland - hardly indicative of any interest or concern. I accept that the United Nations did not exist as the forum that we k now of in post-war times and perhaps this is also indicative of a lack of priority as it was an embryonic organisation with no powers. The Western Allies had opportunity to do more about the fate of the Jews such as bombing of the camps and they failed to take such opportunities - I have seen suggestions that they did not wish their peoples to think of help for the Jews as being a war aim in case widespread anti-semitism caused a reduction in support for the fight. The fact remains that more could have been done to help the Jews.
69. Anonymous says:
3 Feb 2015 05:03:50 AM

What happened throughout these years of brutality inflicted by the Nazi Party should never be forgot, and as time goes on it is all ones job to keep the memories of the survivors alive as well as those who could not tell their own stories upon the liberation. It has been near 70 years since just Auschwitz was unfolded to all across the world, but we should never forget that it was not just the camps, it was discrimination, continuous fear and the control that one mere man conducted upon his time as Chancellor. Everything around that period should be spoken about, the people who died in the worst ways possible should be spoken about for their happier memories as well as the ones who did have the chances to rebuild their lives afterwards.
Unfortunately, there is people out there who do not understand how discrimination affects others. As well as the people who make morbid comments about the Holocaust, but for those who understand their heartbreak will always know. And it is knowing that keeps it remembered, and to remember and tell the Holocaust stories is never forgetting.
70. Anonymous says:
4 Feb 2015 11:13:39 AM

You helped me with a report on the Holocaust. Thank You!
71. Anonymous says:
5 Apr 2015 08:17:31 AM

Yes, this should never happen again...
thegreateststorynevertold.tv explains everything about WW2
72. Anonymous says:
16 May 2015 11:46:39 AM

The Diary of Anne Frank, - written by her, with a Ball Point Pen, - which had not yet been invented!
73. Anonymous says:
28 Jun 2015 06:37:15 AM

'Never Happen Again'? What a joke! Both Russians and USA filled the camps again post 1945 with German citizens. The USA kept German POWs behind wire with no food, no water. 18,000,000 Germans were masacred by Czechs, Poles and Russians post 1945. No you didn't know that did you? Since then the USA has murdered millions world wide and is resonsible for the present mess in the middle east.
74. Eduardo V. di Cantarelli says:
8 Aug 2015 08:47:44 AM

6 million jews were found alive, well fed and were liberated by allied troops from Work Camps / hidden factories in Germany as reported by New York Times Dated May 20, 1945.

"Hitler will have no war (does not want war), but we will force it on him, not this year, but soon." - Emil Ludwig Cohn in Les Annales, June, 1934 (also quoted in his book "The New Holy Alliance").

"We Jews are going to bring a war on Germany." - David A. Brown, National Chairman, United Jewish Campaign, 1934 (quoted in "I Testify Against The Jews" by Robert Edward Edmondson, page 188 and "The Jewish War of Survival" by Arnold Leese, page 52).

"The Israeli people around the world declare economic and financial war against Germany. """"Fourteen million Jews""""( NOTICED THAT HE SAID IN 1933 14.000.000 JEWS) stand together as one man, to declare war against Germany. The Jewish wholesaler will forsake his firm, the banker his stock exchange, the merchant his commerce and the pauper his pitiful shed in order to join together in a holy war against Hitler's people." - Daily Express, March 24, 1933.

March 24, 1933, Jewish newspaper Daily Express -- 14,000,000 Jews worldwide

World Almanac, 1933, pg. 419 -- 15,316,359, ["The estimate for Jews in the above table is for 1933, and is by the American Jewish Committee"

World Almanac, 1940, pg. 129: World Jewish Population -- 15,319,359

American Jewish Committee Bureau of the Synagogue Council, 1939 -- 15,600,000

World Almanac USA, 1947, pg. 748: World Jewish Population -- 15,690,000

World Almanac, US News & World Report, 1983 population of Jews -- 16,820,850

75. Ted says:
13 Oct 2015 03:25:23 AM

To think I used to believe in this rubbish.

There will be a reckoning for this hoax and the pain it has caused to Germans.
76. Anonymous says:
13 Oct 2015 04:05:39 PM

@Ted: Yes, when things get more horrible than our sensibilities can stand, denial can be very comforting.
77. tergium hulotov says:
6 Dec 2015 12:30:35 AM

who wrote this pack of bull feces. any body with a lick of senser who looks into this big holocaust lie will find just that a big lie. if you dont think who runs amelikajust critisize the jews and you will see who runs you,Voltaier said that, and he is right, if you think the jews are a benign and noble influence on the world you are seriosly have a obstruction of your head up your *** it is sickeniong how the jews have doen what they have done and are doing and are planning on doing.
78. Commenter identity confirmed David Stubblebine says:
6 Dec 2015 03:12:35 PM

To Tergium Hulotov:
Your logic is full of holes. First, even if one accepts the absurd notion that the Jews constitute an evil conspiracy, that does not disprove the Nazi slaughter of them. Second, the only way to prove the holocaust is a lie is to assume it is a lie from the beginning and then only give credit to evidence that supports that assumption while intentionally disregarding evidence that challenges it. ÔÇťProofsÔÇŁ of this nature are not proofs at all but are an intentional and willful suspension of reality.
79. Anonymous says:
2 Jan 2016 08:32:03 AM

I cannot understand, nor can I accept the fact that these atrocities conducted at 365 concentration camps were UNKNOWN to the allies until 1945 !!!!! SHOCKING ! Speaks volumes about humanity, hypocricy and politics.
80. Commenter identity confirmed David Stubblebine says:
2 Jan 2016 01:47:02 PM

To Anonymous #79:
The record is pretty clear that the Allies did know, at least in general terms, as early as 1942. The Allied governments issued a Joint Declaration on 17 Dec 1942 condemning Germany for carrying out ÔÇťHitlerÔÇÖs oft-repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people in Europe.ÔÇŁ The declaration was printed in a front page story in the New York Times and it was read by Anthony Eden in the House of Commons in London. If the Allies under-responded to the situation, that came much earlier when they did not do enough to stop HitlerÔÇÖs rise (many point to Neville Chamberlain in Munich in 1938 as the turning point between when Hitler was stoppable and when he was not). By 1942 when the Joint Declaration went public, Hitler was too strong and it took until 1945 to dismantle his system.

Even though the Joint Declaration was front page news in Dec 1942, the treatment of the Jews was still not widely known to the general public. Churchill intentionally sought to downplay the reports coming out of Europe so as to not make the war ÔÇťa Jewish matter.ÔÇŁ This is messed-up but it reflects his politics of the time. Because the details of GermanyÔÇÖs treatment of the Jews were not known at the lower levels during the war, the sense of shock and outrage starting in 1945 is completely understandable and reasonable.

It must also be remembered that public awareness of anything in the 1940s was much more restricted than it is now. There was no internet, no Twitter, no social media, and barely a wire service for news outlets. In much of the world (even many Allied countries), mail was censored and there was no freedom of the press; even in the US, the ÔÇťfree pressÔÇŁ was heavily controlled (censored) by the big newspaper tycoons. Trying to assess what people knew or should have known in those days requires a very different understanding of how information was shared.
81. A little truth for you anti-Semites says:
27 Mar 2016 10:22:30 AM

It seems the holocaust deniers here just won't give up their quest. You sad, little men would have an easier time denying gravity, but instead you choose a subject guaranteed to make you look like fools. You have succeeded. And now all of you claim that you are really just the victims of a monstrous plot, when the truth is that you're just a bunch of angry nuts.
82. R.T. says:
24 May 2016 04:05:24 PM

I've seen the doc Memories of the Camps it's pretty revealing . If you have not seen it check it out . I've also heard what Hoss the commandant of Auschwitz said , he claimed his sole purpose at Auschwitz was to speed up the murder rate to unpresidented levels . Why would he admit to such a thing ? This kind of thinking ie. how to speed up the murder of women and children is so alien to us and our better nature some people just can't admit that it could possibly happen . I hope if people study the Second World War they can have a revelation of what can and does happen when there is no guiding conscience . I like to delve into the history of the Luftwaffe but not to the degree that I could ever condone what Nazi Germany did or was capable of . I would hope and believe the crimes of the Third Riech were the result of brain washing and racist ideology and not because all Germans are brutal killers . I choose to forgive the German people but never forget what can and will happen again if good people stand by and do nothing while a guy like Hitler takes control . Sometimes people like to compare rather silly and incompetent leaders to Hitler but he was none of those things . He spelled out his goals in Mein Kampf , an unreadable mess of basic anti semitism , politics and social structure , then made it happen . That takes political skill and verve which he had in spades . The belief " our Fuhrer would never allow that to happen " was a wide spread sentiment in the Third Reich , many soldiers , and political leaders knew better but were either afraid or could do nothing about the situation . Keeping that in mind , even then some tried and it cost them their lives . Let's hope , and I want to believe our present spate of politicians have a better guiding light than the creeps of the Third Riech .
83. Cody says:
2 Mar 2017 04:56:19 PM

'On 20 Jan 1942, Adolf Hitler signed into an official policy the complete elimination of European Jews at a conference in a villa at Wannsee, with the responsibility given to Reinhard Heydrich.'

He did no such thing (I won't say he wasn't there because I myself won't say things I don't know to be certain but I'm pretty sure nonetheless he wasn't there). Hitler never signed anything about this. Never. Whether he ordered it I won't even get into other than to say he did indeed make suggestions of the total end of Jewry. But sign an order on the Final Solution? False. That's one of the things fuelling the ongoing debate on just who is responsible of the holocaust. As it would! If there was a written document it'd be incontrovertible; but it isn't, like it or not.

(And for the record: it was done in stages and nobody wanted the Jews, not even the United States of America; I refer to many events including the SS St. Louis being turned away).

You should really fix your statement because it is 100% wrong and it is a taint on your credibility.
84. Anonymous says:
4 May 2017 02:15:51 PM

Another hate crime against humanity scenarion is setting up in the US with the president having the skin head neo nazi white supremist vote and anti Muslim anti immigrant sentiment rearing its ugly head , with people hanging bananas with racist crap on college campuses , the saying never again is looking more like a real possibility .it is really scary to be an American at this time , yes I love my country but will not aide or abet this madness , we all came from somewhere else in a family tree , this country used to be the great American melting pot , I have told friends the French called they want there lady back because nothing says welcome than donald trump as president. the president has so far all the accomplishments of Hitler right up to winning man of the Year, if Putin wins this year , history is repeating itself but this time it's muslims being attacked and maligned although theanti semetism has been steadly rising as well. If we don't remember our history it's bound to repeat itself, I had a good friend (kinda a grand mother ) who escaped the Nazi's but not before she was tattooed and ready for deportation to a camp , she was amazingly forgiving of that experience , I was not so much, as citizen of the world I was disgusted at what was done, no humanshould endure what was done and forgive those involved , far to many were not tried and put to death for crimes against humanity .
85. Anonymous says:
26 May 2017 08:24:06 PM

22 December 1944- Two Ukrainian peasants, Hermann and Emma Kurras, were executed after a trial for hiding thirteen Jews who had escaped from a concentration camp.

The people spoken about are my great grandparents and I've been searching for more information if you's can help.
86. Clare B says:
29 Jan 2018 09:01:24 AM

In response to 84, Donald Trump is NOT like Hitler and I resent that you compare him to such an evil man. Also, the Republicans are not against Muslims but are against the extremist who are coming into our country to kill us, get it straight! We need to vet all immigrants to our country just as any responsible country would do. Japan does not allow any Muslims into their country and I believe that they only allow Blacks to live there for a short period of time. I have been to Japan and rarely saw a Black person. Also, I have been to the concentration camp Dachau in Germany and was saddened by the extreme cruelty that occurred there. Trump loves the Jews and has been a friend of Israel, unlike Obama. You need to educate yourself and not listen to the extreme left who consist of a lot of evil, ungodly people. I have been to France too, was there the day that Trump was inaugurated and had to listen to the insults of the French in Paris, yet right down the street, the terrorists had killed over 100 kids at a concert and have allowed refugees to inundate their country without vetting, that is stupid. Now they are seeing their mistake, pc gone amuke. Same with Germany, Sweden, and England. Ridiculous, careless, and foolish for the citizens of those countries. Look at the terrorist attacks in America - Las Vegas, Orlando, NYC, 9/1/1, too many of our innocent people have been killed by barbaric, 1st world thinkers allowed to come here by stupid, liberal leaders who intentionally want to create chaos and tear down our country so that it can be rebuilt as a communist nation. And you say that Trump wants this? No, those were the intentions of the Bushes, the Clintons, and Obama. I truly believe that Hillary would have been the final straw, you would have seen hell here, total destruction, but God had different plans, thankfully. You should be grateful that Trump is our President and you don't have to experience another holocaust. I am sorry for your experience, so horrible! My father fought in WWII for 6 years, fighting Nazis, and suffered PTSD the rest of his life. It was a horrible war to free the Germans and Jews, as well as the captured French, Poland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Greece, and others as well as prevented England from being captured. God Bless America!
87. Alan Rogers says:
25 Jun 2018 03:59:26 AM

My Grandfather, Ben Zimet, (died 1994 at age 94), was the only one of his family to escape to the United States. His entire family, parents and siblings, as well as cousins, Etc, were sent to the camps and never heard from again. With the passing of his son, my uncle, there are no male Zimet's alive, just my mother, 94, and my two female cousins. This is what comes from unchecked hatred of someone who's simply different from you.
88. Abe says:
22 Dec 2019 12:08:29 AM

Germans during the war killed many of our family members, in fact one of my grandparents was the only survivor in his entire family, his father, mother, all his brothers, sisters, nieces and nephews were murdered by the germans. I think Germany never paid a price for the horrible atrocities they committed. And they should be ashamed what their people did not that long ago!
89. Cody says:
10 Jan 2020 03:15:47 PM

Just to point out that there were different types of camps. There was a difference between concentration camps and extermination camps and labour (work) camps.

Vernichtungslager = extermination camp

Konzentrationslager = concentration camp

Arbeitslager = work camp

I really wish people would stop conflating them all. It doesn't make it okay what happened but then again it doesn't make it okay that the world ignored the plight of the Jews, that the UK had a blockade so that the Jews couldn't get to Palestine (though the Gestapo did work with some Jews to try and get round that. Yes really even if you refuse to believe it it's well documented), the US and its turning away the SS. St. Louis, and so many other things including the crimes committed by the Allies.

As for Clare: Yes, America that only came into the war after it was forced to. America that played games with the UK - we'll do this if they do that - as far as helping Jews etc. Sorry but it's not just America and making it out as if it was America that made the difference is not only arrogant it's also false. Oh and in case you didn't know one of the most important figures (if not the most important) of NASA was a Nazi scientist given protection by the US. Why? To learn from them: the Nazis were the first to create a rocket that entered space. And it was developed under appalling conditions with the loss of many many lives - and forced labour. Something which other Nazis were punished for. Great indeed!
90. Cody says:
10 Jan 2020 03:22:17 PM

One other thing I'd like to point out since the world sorely needs to remember it: these were not monsters; they were human beings just like the survivors. If they were beasts they would be doing what they should be doing. There's a fascinating dialogue in the book The Nazi Doctors about this:

Also at issue for us here is the relationship of Nazi doctors to the human species. Another Auschwitz survivor who knew something about them asked me, 'Were they *beasts* when they did what they did? Or were they *human beings*?'

He was not surprised by my answer: they were and are men, which is my justification for studying them; and their behaviour -- Auschwitz -- was a
product of specifically *human* ingenuity and cruelty.

I went on to tell this survivor of the ordinaries of most Nazi doctors I interviewed. Neither brilliant nor stupid, neither inherently evil nor particularly ethically sensitive, they were by no means the demonic figures -- sadistic, fanatical, lusting to kill - people have often thought them to be. My friend replied, 'But it is *demonic* they were *not* demonic'.

The author incidentally is a Jew and so it's not like he just agreed with the doctors he interviewed. There are other books that focus on this theme rather than the crimes - for example Ordinary Men.

Oh and contrary to popular belief we as society have actually benefited from their experiments - my other comment includes an example (space exploration and yes it's benefited us in many ways). But other experiments too. The tragic reality is humans thrive on/strive for conflict. It's not a pleasant reality but it's reality nonetheless.

91. Commenter identity confirmed David Stubblebine says:
15 Jan 2020 04:24:43 PM

Cody (above):
Your posts strike me as a thin attempt to minimize the wickedness done by the Nazis at the camps (whether Vernichtungslagers, Konzentrationslagers, or Arbeitslagers). It is true the United Kingdom and the United States did not behave perfectly through this period either, but their misdeeds were proportionally trivial against GermanyÔÇÖs methodical, premeditated, nearly mechanical murders of millions of people. Attempts to shine light on events like the Palestine blockade or the SS St. Louis incident are weak attempts at misdirection. The Palestine blockade and the St. Louis incident arguably were wrong, but nothing in them lets Nazi Germany off the hook.

Your point that these were men and not beasts is correct, of course, but this is also precisely the point. Men did these terrible things. Men are capable of such cruelty on other men. This is the lesson we cannot afford to forget. This is why we dare not trivialize events like the Holocaust ÔÇô because they might happen again if people of good will do not remain vigilant to prevent them. The part of the Holocaust story that goes unsaid too often is that slaughter on this scale is not unique to Nazi Germany ÔÇô it CAN happen again. The Japanese killed almost as many Chinese civilians during World War II as the Germans killed European civilians and there have been many examples of ethnic cleansing around the world both before and since. The whole point here, if we wish to think of ourselves as a civilized society, is that we must remember that these things happened, that men are capable of doing such things, and then we must dedicate ourselves to the proposition that it cannot happen again.

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