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Stalingrad file photo [545]

Battle of Stalingrad

17 Jul 1942 - 2 Feb 1943


ww2dbaseThe southern Russian city of Stalingrad was a major industrial city, producing tanks, among other equipment, for the Soviet war effort. In terms of location, the city sat on the flank of the route toward the oil fields in the Caucasus region, while it was also a major transportation center between northern Russia and the Caspian Sea. Finally, the mere fact that it bore the name of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin gave more the reason for Adolf Hitler to conquer the city for morale reasons.

ww2dbaseIn the summer of 1942, German, Italian, Romanian, Hungarian, and Croatian forces, organized as the German Army Group South (B), which contained the 6th Army under Colonel General Friedrich Paulus and the 4th Panzer Army under Hermann Hoth, marched toward Stalingrad. The initial attacks were very successful, thus Hitler transferred the 4th Panzer Army away from the Stalingrad offensive to join Army Group South (A), which was moving toward the Caucasus oil fields. This move, however, caused major traffic jams on the inadequate road systems of Russia, slowing the offensive plans upwards of a week. With this delay in mind, Hitler changed his mind and re-assigned the 4th Panzer Army back into Army Group South (B) for Stalingrad. By the end of Jul 1942, the Germans had forced their way across the Don River. At this point, the Germans began deploying Italian, Romanian, Hungarian, and Croatian forces on their northern flank, leaving the attack of Stalingrad to the German forces. The only exception was the Croatian 369th Reinforced Infantry Regiment, which fought alongside the German 100th Jaeger Division.

ww2dbaseStalin recognized the threat to Stalingrad and appointed Colonel General Andrey Yeryomenko on 1 Aug 1942 as the commanding officer of the Southeastern Front to plan the defense. Political commissar Nikita Khrushchev was assigned to assist Yeryomenko. Among the first orders Yeryomenko issued was to move the city's grain, cattle, and railroad cars east across the Volga River. Then, he organized the Soviet units immediately to the east of the Volga River into the 62nd Army, which was later placed in command of Lieutenant General Vasiliy Chuikov on 11 Sep 1942.

ww2dbaseThe first attacks on the city came in the form of aerial strikes conducted by the German Luftflotte 4 under the command of Colonel General Wolfram von Richthofen, targeting shipping on the Volga River and known defensive fortifications. Between 25 and 31 Jul, 32 Soviet ships were sunk on the river, and a further 9 were seriously damaged. As for the city, it received about 1,000 tons of bombs, which damaged about 80% of its structures. As the oil tanks exploded and their contents spilled, "[t]orrents of burning oil and petrol flowed into the Volga until the river itself was in flames.... Stalingrad became a gigantic pile of ruins and debris stretching along the banks of the Volga." On 23 Aug, a massive air bombardment caused a firestorm that killed thousands. The Soviet Air Force was generally ineffective in countering the aerial attacks. By 31 Aug, only 192 aircraft were operable, and only 57 of them were fighters. Despite German air superiority and the heavy bombardments, however, some of the factories continued their work, turning out tanks and war supplies until they could no longer do so, and at that time the workers were conscripted into the Soviet Army.

ww2dbaseBy the end of Aug, the German Army Group South (B) had reached the Volga River north of Stalingrad. By 1 Sep, the Soviet forces could only reinforce the city by crossing the river as the city was now surrounded on three sides. Meanwhile, river crossings continued to be subjected to German attacks, now both by air and by artillery pieces. To preserve the strength of the Soviet regulars, Chuikov deployed women and conscripted civilians as the first line of defense. A post-engagement report written by an officer of the German 16th Panzer Division noted that the fight to silent 37 anti-aircraft batteries (used in anti-tank roles) was difficult, and he was shocked to find out afterwards that they were crewed by women. In the morning of 5 Sep, the Soviet 24th Army and 66th Army launched a counter-offensive against the German XIV Panzer Corps, but it was driven back at the face of superior firepower, particularly from the air, which destroyed 30 out of the 120 tanks that the Soviet forces lost in the attack. On 18 Sep, the Soviet 1st Guards Army and the 24th Army launched an offensive against VIII. Armeekorps at Kotluban near Stalingrad. Again, German Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers played an important role in repulsing the attack, destroying 41 out of the 106 Soviet tanks destroyed in the morning; Bf 109 fighters also shot down 77 Soviet fighters during the engagement. By the end of Sep, Chuikov had realized that he could not sustain a battle of attrition, thus he decided to dig in to the cityscape, thus minimizing the German advantage of the control of air. Additionally, he also developed the "hugging" tactic which kept his front lines very close to the German lines; this also deprived the Germans of the ability to use dive bombers to support the ground troops due to the risk of hitting German troops.

ww2dbaseBack on 28 Jul 1942, Stalin had issued the Order Number 227, disallowing defending Soviet troops to take even a step back. Khrushchev and other political commissars dispatched to Stalingrad were those who policed this order. All who withdrew from the front lines were considered deserters and cowards, and they were brought before a military tribunal, which usually delivered death sentences or transferred the accused to penal battalions. There were also incidences where deserters were shot on the spot. Even as the battle fought on and more and more of the city slowly turned into rubble, Stalin continued to also forbid the civilians from evacuating; instead, they were ordered to join the fight or to help construct defensive structures. Any civilian discovered to be evacuating the city in secret, like their military counterparts, were also in violation of Order Number 227.

ww2dbaseThe battle for Stalingrad turned into bitter street fighting by this time. Every building was turned into Soviet fortresses, and even the sewer tunnels became battlegrounds. The railroad station became the scene of ferocious combat; on a particularly violent day, the marshalling yards exchanged hands 14 times within six hours, with the Germans finally capturing it only because the Soviet unit deployed there had been completely wiped out. At an apartment building at the edge of a square in the city center, Yakov Pavlov's platoon defended against waves after waves of German attacks. The German efforts to capture this apartment building was so costly that the Germans marked the building as a fortress on their field maps, while the Soviets nicknamed it "Pavlov's House". At his command bunker, Chuikov said that "Stalingrad could be seized by the enemy on one condition only if every one of the defending soldiers were killed."

ww2dbaseWhile the German Luftwaffe controlled the air during the day, Soviet air force sneaked small scale bombing raids at night. These attacks were generally ineffectively and were regarded more so as a nuisance rather than a threat.

ww2dbaseWith the city gradually being reduced to rubble, snipers on both sides became more and more active as they began to gain more and more hiding spots. The most successful Soviet sniper was Vasily Zaytsev, who claimed somewhere between 200 to 400 kills; he became an effective centerpiece for Soviet propaganda aimed at raising morale.

ww2dbaseOn 5 Oct, 900 dive bombing sorties were flown against Soviet positions at the Dzerzhinskiy Tractor Factory, wiping out entire regiments of troops entrenched there. On 14 Oct, 2,000 sorties were flown, dropping 600 tons of bombs against various Soviet positions. By this time, the Soviet forces in Stalingrad were forced into a 910-meter strip of land on the bank of the Volga River, running out of supplies due to the German control of the air over the river. Also on 14 Oct, a renewed German attack against the Soviet forces, pushing for the following 10 days, but they failed to eliminate final Soviet foothold on the west bank of the Volga River. On 8 Nov, the Luftwaffe at Stalingrad took a heavy blow not from the Soviets but rather from Hitler, who had transferred entire units of Luftflotte 4 to southern Europe in response to the Allied landings in North Africa. The Soviet Air Force suddenly found an opportunity to rival the German air forces in the region, right at the time when Moscow was planning on launching a major counter-offensive to take advantage of the oncoming winter and its effects on German tanks.

ww2dbaseOn 19 Nov 1942, the Soviet offensive, Operation Uranus, was launched, oversaw by Marshal Georgi Zhukov and tactically led by General Nikolai Vatutin. The Soviet 1st Guards Army, the 5th Tank Army, and the 21st Army shattered the northern flank, manned by the Romanian 3rd Army, on the first day. Silesian soldier of the German Sixth Army Joachim Wieder recalled the fighting:

The 19th of November will live in my memory as a day of black disaster. At the break of dawn on this gloomy, foggy day in the late autumn, during which lashing snowstorms were soon to appear,... Russians attacked like lightning from the north and the following day from the east, pressing our entire Sixth Army into an iron vice.

ww2dbaseOn 20 Nov, two additional Soviet armies joined in on the attack. By 21 Nov, the third day of the offensive, the Soviets had already surrounded Stalingrad along with 290,000 Axis troops inside. Hitler's advisors immediately suggested the troops trapped within to break out and form a new line at the western bank of the Don River, but Hitler refused, while chief of the Luftwaffe Hermann Göring promised that his aircraft would be able to deliver all the supplies the 270,000 to 300,000 men needed to continue the fighting. Göring had failed to recognize that the German 6th Army in Stalingrad required 800 tons of supplies each day, and available aircraft in the area only had the capacity of 117.5 tons. This deficiency, coupled with bad weather, and the increasing Soviet Air Force threat, meant that only an average of 94 tons of supplies were actually delivered per day. On 23 Dec, the Soviet 24th Tank Corps under Major General Vasily Mikhaylovich Badanov captured the airfield at Tatsinskaya, forcing the German aircraft located there to relocate to Salsk, which was 200 miles from Stalingrad and made the resupply mission even more difficult. By mid-Jan 1943, Salsk was abandoned after a closer airfield at Zverevo near Shakhty was established, but Soviet forces repeatedly attacked this new location, disrupting flight schedules and damaging or even destroying aircraft. Between 24 Nov 1942 and 31 Jan 1943, the German Luftwaffe lost 296 Ju 52 aircraft, 169 He 111 aircraft, 42 Ju 86 aircraft, 9 Fw 200 aircraft, 5 He 177 aircraft, and 1 Ju 290 aircraft while attempting to supply the troops in Stalingrad. Trapped in Stalingrad, men of the German 6th Army began to suffer from the effects of starvation.

ww2dbaseOn 19 Dec, the Soviet troops declared victory in Stalingrad. This was rather premature, as heavy fighting would continue.

ww2dbaseOn 12 Dec, the German Army Group Don was formed under Erich von Manstein. When this new unit reached Stalingrad on 21 Dec, Manstein asked Paulus to break out, but Paulus refused, citing Hitler's prior orders for him to hold the city. At the end of Dec 1942, Paulus sent a message to Berlin detailing the dire situation, but Hitler did not change his mind.

ww2dbaseAs the weather became colder, the Volga River froze over, and the Soviets were now able to supply the small Soviet contingent in the city with trucks. On 16 Dec, the Soviet forces launched Operation Little Saturn in an attempt to cut off the entire German Army Group South by securing the Don River; the attempt was not successful, but it greatly disrupted German operations in the Caucasus region, for example forcing Army Group South (A) to pull back to within 250 kilometers from Stalingrad to consolidate German positions in the area. On 8 Jan 1943, Soviet Lieutenant General Konstantin Rokossovsky demanded Paulus to surrender, which was rejected. "Capitulation is impossible. The 6th Army will do its historic duty at Stalingrad until the last man", Hitler ordered. "Stand fast, not a step back". German Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel agreed with Hitler's order, noting that a withdraw only by a few miles would result in a near complete loss of all heavy equipment, and without the heavy weapons the troops withdrawn would be vulnerable to the Soviet counterattack that would undoubtedly take place immediately afterwards.

ww2dbaseOn 10 Jan 1943, a Soviet offensive cut the German garrison in Stalingrad into two. A new phase of street fighting began, and it was now the Soviets who advanced steadily but were surprised by the ferocity of the defenders who had no choice but to fight until the end. On 16 Jan, Pitomnik Airfield was captured by the Soviets, followed by Gumrak Airfield on 23 Jan, and then the smaller Stalingradskaya Airfield on 24 Jan. This meant that German aircraft were no longer able to land in Stalingrad to deliver supplies, thus the only supplies coming in were limited to the small amounts that could be paradropped to German positions.

ww2dbaseOn 31 Jan, Hitler promoted Paulus to the rank of field marshal on the basis that no German field marshal had ever surrendered to the enemy in history. Despite Paulus' prior determination to obey Hitler's orders, he finally broke down on 2 Feb and surrendered. By this time, there were only 91,000 men left, meaning that about 200,000 were killed in action or simply died of starvation in the past two months. 3,000 of those who surrendered were Romanians; 22 officers with general ranks were among the prisoners of war. At his command post at a department store building, Paulus surrendered to General Mikhail Shumilov of the Soviet 64th Army. Fighting ceased about two days after. Hitler was furious, noting that Paulus "could have freed himself from all sorrow and ascended into eternity and national immortality, but he prefers to go to Moscow."

ww2dbaseDuring this battle, the Axis forces suffered an estimated 850,000 casualties, half of which were German; some estimates ran much higher, with the greatest being the Soviet official report which noted that 1,500,000 Axis personnel were killed in this battle, though that number was generally regarded as a gross over-estimation. The Soviet Union suffered 1,129,619 military (which included 478,741 killed or missing) and about 40,000 civilian casualties. The 40,000 figure included only civilians within Stalingrad city; there were also significant civilian casualties in the suburbs that could not be determined.


ww2dbaseThe German government did not reveal this defeat until Jan 1943; it became the first time that Germany publicly acknowledged a military failure. Of the 91,000 captured, only about 5,000 were repatriated to Germany in 1955; most of the remaining, already weakened by the lack of food and medicine during the encirclement, failed to survive the harsh living conditions of prisoner of war camps and labor camps where they were sent to. Stalingrad itself was reduced to almost nothing after the fighting. As Wieder later remembered, "[f]or half a year destruction and death had celebrated orgies here and hardly left anything save the torn stumps of houses, naked rows of walls, chimneys sticking up from vast piles of rubble, gutted factories, formless hunks of asphalt."

Isabel Denny, The Fall of Hitler's Fortress City
Walter Görlitz, In the Service of the Reich

Last Major Update: Aug 2010

Battle of Stalingrad Interactive Map


A building burning during the Battle of Stalingrad in Southern Russia, 21 Jun 1942A German Army company commander and a platoon commander in discussion, Stalingrad, Russia, 21 Jun 1942
See all 111 photographs of Battle of Stalingrad

Battle of Stalingrad Timeline

5 Apr 1942 Adolf Hitler issued Führer Directive No. 41, calling for the invasion of the Caucasus region and Stalingrad, both in southern Russia.
14 Jul 1942 Martial law was declared in Stalingrad, Russia.
16 Jul 1942 Soviet forces evacuated Boguchar in Voronezh Oblast and Milerovo in Rostov Oblast in southern Russia as German troops advanced toward Stalingrad.
19 Jul 1942 The Soviet 66th Naval Rifle Brigade arrived at Stalingrad, Russia and was assigned to the Soviet 64th Army.
22 Jul 1942 German 6th Army reached the great bend in the Don River near Stalingrad, Russia.
26 Jul 1942 German 6th Army broke through the lines held by Soviet 62nd Army and 64th Army west of Stalingrad, Russia.
30 Jul 1942 German Armeegruppe B attacked the Soviet bridgehead at Kalach-na-Donu in southern Russia, west of Stalingrad.
31 Jul 1942 Adolf Hitler reversed his order of 23 Jul 1942 which detached the 4th Panzer Army from the assault on Stalingrad, Russia; the 4th Panzer Army began moving north toward Stalingrad, which caused some logistical issues as other German units moved south along the same roads in the invasion of the Caucasus region.
1 Aug 1942 Marshal Andrey Yeryomenko was appointed the commanding officer of the Soviet Southeastern Front, charged with planning the defense of Stalingrad in southern Russia. Meanwhile, German 4th Panzer Army attacked Kotelnikovo located 100 miles southwest of Stalingrad, surprising Soviet defenders.
2 Aug 1942 German 4th Panzer Army captured Kotelnikovo, Russia.
4 Aug 1942 Elements of German 4.Panzerarmee crossed the Aksay River en route to Stalingrad, Russia.
7 Aug 1942 Elements of German 6.Armee crossed the Don River near Kalach-na-Donu, southern Russia, west of Stalingrad.
9 Aug 1942 German 4.Panzerarmee reached the eastern shore of the Don River bend west of Stalingrad, Russia, threatening to envelope Soviet 62nd Army and 64th Army on the western shore.
10 Aug 1942 Troops of the German 6.Armee crossed the Don River in southern Russia, reaching the suburbs of Stalingrad.
11 Aug 1942 German 6th Army captured Kalach in southern Russia and linked up with German 4th Panzer Army.
14 Aug 1942 Troops of German 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army set fire to wooded areas west of the Don River in southern Russia in an attempt to drive out the remnants of the surrounded Soviet 62nd Army.
15 Aug 1942 Troops of German 6th Army attacked the remnants of Soviet 4th Tank Army on the west bank of the Don River bend at 0430 hours.
16 Aug 1942 German Luftwaffe conducted its first major bombing raid on Stalingrad, Russia.
20 Aug 1942 The German 6.Armee began to attack Stalingrad, Russia, crossing the Don River by inflatable boats.
22 Aug 1942 German 16th Panzer Division began to cross the Don River toward Stalingrad, Russia.
23 Aug 1942 The attack on Stalingrad in southern Russia opened with massive air raid lasting 48 hours involving more than 4,000 sorties while German ground units continued to reach the Volga River north and south of the city. At Chebotarevskiy 115 miles to the northeast, 700 Italian horse-mounted cavalry troops overran a Soviet artillery position by surprise, capturing 500 troops, 4 guns, 10 mortars, and 50 machine guns.
24 Aug 1942 Marshal Georgy Zhukov was sent to Stalingrad, Russia to take over the defense.
25 Aug 1942 Joseph Stalin declared Stalingrad, Russia to be in a state of siege, but ordered all heavy factories to remain in position to supply combat vehicles directly to front line units. Meanwhile, German 6th Army continued the attempt to break into the city from the north, but making little advance.
27 Aug 1942 German 16th Panzer Division, out of fuel to move further, dug in north of Stalingrad, Russia to wait for the German 6th Army to catch up to reinforce its position. 16 miles south of Stalingrad, German 4th Panzer Division made slow progress due to heavy resistance near Lake Sarpa.
29 Aug 1942 German 4th Panzer Army broke through Soviet lines 15 miles south of Stalingrad, Russia.
31 Aug 1942 Tanks of the German 4th Panzer Army reached the Stalingrad-Morozovsk railway on the outskirts of Stalingrad, Russia.
1 Sep 1942 Soviet General Andrey Yeremenko pulled Soviet 62nd Army and 64th Army back near Stalingrad, Russia to avoid encirclement.
3 Sep 1942 The German 6.Armee and 4.Panzerarmee finally linked up near Stalingrad in southern Russia, but were rebuffed in their attempts to enter the city.
5 Sep 1942 Soviet 24th Army and 66th Army organized a counter attack against German XIV Panzer Corps at Stalingrad, Russia. Launched in the morning, it was called off around noon time; 30 of the 120 tanks committed to this attack were destroyed, nearly all of which to German Luftwaffe aircraft.
7 Sep 1942 The German 6.Armee units began advancing through Stalingrad, Russia to the Volga shores.
10 Sep 1942 German 29th Motorized Infantry Division cut off Soviet 64th Army south of Stalingrad, Russia.
11 Sep 1942 Lieutenant General Vasiliy Chuikov took command of the newly formed Soviet 62nd Army located on the east bank of the Volga River at Stalingrad in southern Russia.
12 Sep 1942 General Friedrich Paulus began a fresh offensive toward Stalingrad, Russia with artillery and aerial bombardments. His ground troops then reached the strategically vital hill 102 of Mamayev Kurgan which overlooked the city. This hill, an important line of defence for centuries, would now see a bloody struggle by both sides as its loss would allow the Germans to control the entire river, across which all Soviet supplies had to travel. By the end of the day, the Soviet 62nd Army had been reduced to 90 tanks, 700 mortars and 20,000 men.
13 Sep 1942 Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Division engaged in heavy fighting at Mamayev Kurgan and Railway Station No. 1 at Stalingrad, Russia; it would lose a third of its strength in the fighting.
14 Sep 1942 Soviet 62nd Army launched a counterattack in Stalingrad, Russia at dawn, but it would ultimately be turned back by German troops, with the Soviets hemming themselves into a narrow strip along the Volga River. From the other side of the river, Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Division crossed on barges amidst aerial and artillery bombardment to prevent German 71st Division and 76th Division from penetrating Soviet 62nd Army lines and reaching the Volga River.
15 Sep 1942 German infantry made repeated assaults at the Mamayev Kurgan hill in Stalingrad, Russia without success; heavy fighting caused heavy casualties on both sides. Elsewhere in the city, German infantry advanced down the Tsaritsa River gorge toward the Volga River.
16 Sep 1942 The Soviet NKVD rifle battalion stationed on Mamayev Kurgan hill in Stalingrad, Russia continued to fight off German attempts to take this high point.
17 Sep 1942 In Stalingrad, Russia, German and Soviet troops engaged in heavy fighting at the Mamayev Kurgan hill, the Central Station, the grain elevator, and the apartment building soon to be named Pavlov's House. Also in the city, German troops advanced along the Tsaritsa River toward the banks of the Volga River where Soviet reinforcements were arriving from the other side.
18 Sep 1942 Soviet 1st Guards Army and 24th Army attacked German VIII Army Corps at Kotluban 40 kilometers north of Stalingrad, Russia; German Stuka dive bombers hampered the attack by destroying 41 of the 106 Soviet tanks committed, while escorting Bf 109 fighters destroyed 77 Soviet aircraft in the immediate area. In the city, heavy house-to-house fighting continued.
19 Sep 1942 Soviet 24th Army, 66th Army, and 1st Guards Army attempted another counterattack north of Stalingrad, Russia near Kotluban, but it was repulsed by German XIV Panzer Corps.
20 Sep 1942 In Stalingrad, Russia, Soviet and German troops engaged in heavy fighting at the Mamayev Kurgan hill, in the Central Station, and the grain elevator.
22 Sep 1942 The Soviet 62nd Army was split in half by the German advance down the Taritsa River gorge in Stalingrad in southern Russia, and the German troops now held nearly the entire southern half of the city.
23 Sep 1942 Soviet 284th Rifle Division arrived in Stalingrad, Russia and was ferried across the Volga River to join the front lines as German troops attacked the landing site.
24 Sep 1942 German 94th Infantry Division and 24th Panzer Division effectively wiped out all Soviet units in the southern pocket in Stalingrad, Russia.
26 Sep 1942 The German troops begin another "final" attack in Stalingrad, Russia.
27 Sep 1942 German Luftwaffe unit III./KG 4 (flying He 111 bombers) flew its last bombing sortie over Stalingrad, Russia. The unit would soon be transported out of its base in Morozovsk, Russia for Germany to undergo glider towing training.
28 Sep 1942 In Stalingrad, Russia, Sergeant Jacob Pavlov and three others assaulted the much shelled apartment block facing Solechnaya street, expelling the incumbent Germans with hand-grenades. In the cellar they found several badly wounded Soviet soldiers still holding out. "Pavlov's House" would become a boundary fortification, and a symbol of resistance. The handful of men defended the outpost for 58 days, against infantry, artillery and tank assaults.
3 Oct 1942 Heavy losses were incurred on both sides as the German 6.Armee pushed the Soviet 62nd Army back to the Volga River at Stalingrad, Russia.
4 Oct 1942 German XIV Panzer Korps attacked the Stalingrad Tractor Factory in Stalingrad, Russia.
14 Oct 1942 The German assault on the Stalingrad Tractor Factory in Stalingrad, Russia was aided by more than 2,000 sorties by aircraft of Luftflotte 4.
15 Oct 1942 German Luftwaffe unit I./KG 100 (flying He 111 bombers) briefly returned to Stalino (now Donetsk), Ukraine to conduct three bombing raids on Stalingrad, Russia.
15 Oct 1942 German Stuka dive bombers of Luftflotte 4 flew 900 individual sorties against Soviet positions at the Stalingrad Tractor Factory in Stalingrad, Russia, wiping out several Soviet regiments.
16 Oct 1942 The entire staff of the Soviet 339th Infantry Regiment was wiped out by German air attacks at Stalingrad, Russia.
22 Oct 1942 Most of the Red October and Barricade factories in northern Stalingrad, Russia were taken by German troops.
25 Oct 1942 Friedrich Paulus reported to Adolf Hitler that Stalingrad, Russia would be taken by 10 Nov 1942.
26 Oct 1942 In light of the positive report from Friedrich Paulus from Stalingrad, Russia, Adolf Hitler, from his Wehrwolf headquarters near of Vinnytsia in Ukraine, ordered some of the German units in that region to prepare to move north once Stalingrad was conquered.
31 Oct 1942 As Adolf Hitler was confident that Stalingrad, Russia would soon be under German control, he departed the Wehrwolf headquarters near of Vinnytsia, Ukraine and moved to the Wolfsschanze headquarters in Rastenburg, Germany (now Ketrzyn, Poland).
8 Nov 1942 Many units of the German Luftflotte 4 were transferred from Stalingrad, Russia to North Africa.
11 Nov 1942 German 6.Armee succeeded in reaching the Volga River in Stalingrad, Russia, with a 600-yard frontage near the Red October steel factory. In Germany, Hitler announced during Beer Hall Putsch celebration that Stalingrad, Russia was almost in German hands, but that he did not want to keep the city just because of its name.
19 Nov 1942 Having fought the Germans to a standstill, the Soviets launched a surprise counter-attack north and south of Stalingrad, Russia designed to encircle Friedrich Paulus's German 6th Army bogged down in the city.
20 Nov 1942 Six He 111 bombers of German Luftwaffe group KG 55 flew an armed reconnaissance mission from their base at Morozovskaya, Russia over Stalingrad, Russia; two aircraft failed to return.
20 Nov 1942 One day after the first Soviet offensive was launched at Stalingrad, Russia, a second one was launched south of the city against positions held by Romanian 4th Army Corps.
22 Nov 1942 The encirclement of the German 6th Army around Stalingrad, Russia was completed when Soviet 4th Mechanized Corps and 4th Tank Corps met at Kalach-na-Donu after smashing through positions held by Romanian troops.
25 Nov 1942 He 111 aircraft from Tatsinskaya Airfield and Morozovskaya Airfield in Rostov Oblast, Russia flew 75 tons of supplies, mostly fuel, into Stalingrad, Russia.
26 Nov 1942 Low cloud ceiling of 200 meters and periodic snow showers hindered German ability to supply troops in Stalingrad, Russia on this day.
27 Nov 1942 Commanded by General Erich von Manstein, the German Armeegruppe Don was formed in southern Russia in order to relieve the trapped German 6th Army at Stalingrad, Russia.
30 Nov 1942 German Luftwaffe VIII. Fliegerkorps was relieved of all its combat duties. Instead, its aircraft stationed across Rostov Oblast, Russia were ordered to focus on flying supplies into Stalingrad, Russia.
3 Dec 1942 In Stalingrad, Russia, after fierce hand-to–hand fighting, Soviet forces capture the L-shaped House where the Germans had been overlooking the Soviet positions along the Volga River for many weeks.
3 Dec 1942 In southern Russia, German Armeegruppe Don received several divisions from Western Europe in preparation for the relief operation against Stalingrad, Russia, Operation Winter Tempest.
5 Dec 1942 Despite heavy fog, 17 He 111 and about 50 Ju 52/3m aircraft were able to fly 150 tons of supplies into Stalingrad, Russia.
12 Dec 1942 Operation Winter Tempest was launched towards Stalingrad, Russia with German 3 Panzer Divisions and 10 other divisions.
19 Dec 1942 Erich von Manstein's units reached a point 30 miles south of Stalingrad, Russia, which would be the extent of their advance.
21 Dec 1942 Kurt Zeitzler asked Adolf Hitler for permission for Friedrich Paulus' German 6.Armee, encircled within Stalingrad, Russia, to break out to meet Erich von Manstein's relief efforts from the outside. Hitler rejected it, noting that German troops were to hold Stalingrad.
22 Dec 1942 Kurt Zeitzler once again asked Adolf Hitler to allow the German 6.Armee to break out from Stalingrad, Russia to avoid the remnants of the army from being totally wiped out. Hitler again refused.
23 Dec 1942 Erich von Manstein's troops began to withdraw to Kotelnikovo, Russia where they started their offensive.
24 Dec 1942 Soviet tanks broke German defensive lines at Tatsinskaya Airfield in Rostov Oblast, southern Russia, an important airfield flying supplies into Stalingrad, Russia; 124 Ju 52/3m aircraft were able to take into the air to escape, but 46 other aircraft were either damaged, destroyed, or abandoned as the Soviets captured Tatsinskaya. Elsewhere in Rostov Oblast, a similar attack was conducted on Morozovsk Airfield, but the Germans were able to repulse that attack.
24 Dec 1942 Soviet troops launched an offensive against the German Armeegruppe Don near Stalingrad, Russia, piercing Romanian 4th Army's lines.
25 Dec 1942 With the slaughter of over 12,000 horses, the Germans in Stalingrad, Russia received their last meat rations.
27 Dec 1942 Hitler authorized the German Armeegruppe A and Armeegruppe Don to withdraw 150 miles to a new defensive line in southern Russia.
2 Jan 1943 He 111 aircraft stationed at Morozovskaya Airfield, Rostov Oblast, Russia were evacuated. Since the aircraft could not take all the equipment and supplies with them, commanding officer of KG 55 Oberstleutnant Ernst Kühl remained behind with a small staff in the hopes that the ground troops would be able to blunt the Soviet offensive so that the aircraft could return.
4 Jan 1943 Soviet troops captured Morozovskaya Airfield, Rostov Oblast, Russia. Commanding officer of KG 55 Oberstleutnant Ernst Kühl and his small staff destroyed various equipment and supply dumps before evacuating.
8 Jan 1943 General Rokossovsky issued a surrender ultimatum to German 6th Army, which guaranteed their lives and safety until their return to Germany after the war. Paulus refused the ultimatum.
10 Jan 1943 Another Soviet offensive, Operation Ring, began at Stalingrad, Russia.
16 Jan 1943 Soviet troops captured Pitomnik Airfield west of Stalingrad, Russia, denying the Germans the ability to fly in supplies and fly out wounded men.
18 Jan 1943 Late in the day, three He 111 transport aircraft of German Luftwaffe unit III./KG 55 attempted to land at the small Gumrak Airfield at Stalingrad, Russia. The first landed but would not be able to takeoff again, the second made ten failed attempts at lining up with the wreck-strewn short runway but ultimately pushed its cargo of 20 sacks of bread out of the bomb bay doors without landing, and the third followed suit.
22 Jan 1943 German 6th Army engineers reported that the small Stalingradskaya Airfield close to the center of Stalingrad, Russia was ready to receive transport aircraft. Several He 111 aircraft arrived later on the same day with supplies, some of which would be fatally damaged when their landing gears became caught in bomb craters on the runway.
23 Jan 1943 The German-controlled Gumrak Airfield on the western side of Stalingrad, Russia was taken by Soviet troops.
24 Jan 1943 The Soviets once again demanded surrender from the encircled German forces in Stalingrad, Russia. Responding to Friedrich Paulus' message requesting permission to surrender as his men were now nearly out of ammunition and medical supplies, Adolf Hitler told Paulus to fight to the last man even if defeat was imminent. By the end of this day, the German forces in Stalingrad would be divided in two pockets and would have lost the use of the final airstrip available to them, Stalingradsaya Airfield.
25 Jan 1943 The remnants of the German 6.Armee were split in two pockets, north and south, in Stalingrad, Russia.
28 Jan 1943 As the German forces in Stalingrad, Russia were now divided into three pockets by Soviet attacks, Hermann Göring messaged Friedrich Paulus, noting that Paulus' stubborn defense, even if it led to self sacrifice, would go down in German history as one of the most heroic tales.
30 Jan 1943 In Germany, Hermann Göring publicly noted that the defense and sacrifice at Stalingrad, Russia would go down in history as a heroic tale.
30 Jan 1943 Soviet troops reached Red Square in central Stalingrad, Russia.
31 Jan 1943 Out of food and ammunition, the southern half of the German 6.Armee in Stalingrad, Russia surrendered; the final radio message coming out of this pocket was made at 1945 hours, which closed with the Morse abbreviation "CL", short for "Clear (I am closing my station)". Shortly after, 110 German transport aircraft take off for the northern pocket with supplies; more than 90 of the aircraft found the illuminated triangular drop zone and released their loads.
1 Feb 1943 Trapped in the ruins of a department store in Stalingrad, Russia, Friedrich Paulus surrendered the southern pocket along with 14 of his generals; Paulus became the first German field marshal to surrender to an enemy force. Fighting continued in the northern pocket, however, and 85 of the 108 transport aircraft dispatched to airdrop supplies to the northern pocket were able to do so.
2 Feb 1943 The last of the German Sixth Army surrendered in Stalingrad, Russia. On the same day, a German reconnaissance aircraft was dispatched to fly over Stalingrad, confirming that all fighting had ceased.
3 Feb 1943 12 He 111 aircraft, with supplies on board, flew over the northern pocket of Stalingrad, Russia before dawn. Of the 11 aircraft that reached the intended drop zone, only 3 dropped some of their cargo, as they found no German activity.
3 Feb 1943 During the day, the German OKW issued an announcement to inform the German public of the defeat at Stalingrad, Russia. The message, read over the radio, was preceded by a solemn drum roll and was followed by the 2nd movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's 5th symphony.
4 Feb 1943 In Germany, three days of national mourning began over the disaster at Stalingrad, Russia. All theatres, cinemas and night clubs were closed.
26 Mar 1943 Adolf Hitler informed Benito Mussolini that the Battle of Stalingrad had weakened the Soviet Union so much that the city would surely fall and the war would be won.

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Visitor Submitted Comments

1. Anonymous says:
19 Jan 2006 02:17:47 AM

I think the Russians secured more then a great moral victory
2. harry says:
31 Jan 2006 09:35:57 AM

this was in my opinon one of the greatest battles ever fought.
3. Adam VanMeter says:
20 Apr 2007 01:09:12 PM

Possibly the bloodiest battle of the war.
4. Anonymous says:
14 May 2007 08:37:13 AM

this is stupid.....
5. Anonymous says:
27 Nov 2007 08:14:50 PM

Turning point of World War II.
6. denbf109 says:
27 Dec 2007 07:25:54 AM

i am hoping to find someone with more pictures of lilya litvyak. she was a real looker, as was budanova.
7. Panzerfaust says:
6 Aug 2008 09:07:47 PM

The Germans were a amazing army, but the Hitler asshole complicated all!!!
8. Anonymous says:
22 Nov 2008 01:15:24 PM

if only hitler had fully pushed towards moscow,
he could have taken the capital then swept around taking stalingrad...
then the outcome of the war could have potentally changed....
all in all Hitler didn't really NEED to even take Stalingrad...the whole reason why he did it was because he didn't like Stalin...who the city was obviously named after.
But, one could argue that Hitler's main downfall is exactly the same as the 2nd reich..
a 2 sided front... that was Russia's plan the whole time...she saw the same weakness.
9. vampire underlord says:
26 Feb 2009 05:49:25 AM

hittler sucks there is no excuse for his *** but this was a bloody war and it was greatly fought
10. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
20 Dec 2009 10:43:18 AM

Out of 90,000 Germans who marched into Soviet
captivity, at Stalingrad only 5,000 returned from Russia.
Most pow's were held over 10 years after the war, some were never returned and spent the rest of their lives in captivity.
Thousands died of overwork,sickness,injuries
beating and torture. The forced labor of pow's rebuild cities, towns and villages.

11. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
20 Dec 2009 12:25:01 PM

Equipment losses at Stalingrad:
1,150 Tanks and armored vehicles
1,400 Mortars
8,100 Maching guns
90,000 Rifles
61,000 Trucks and 3 Armored trains, tons of
equipment and other supplies.

The Luftwaffe lost:
1,135 Aircraft of all types (including 274
Transports and 165 Bombers also used as
Transport aircraft, plus over 1,000 crews.

Many pow's died in captivity between 1943 and
1955, of the 90,000 Germans captured 27,000
died within weeks, along with other Axis forces of Romanians, Hungarians and Italians Total Axis troop losses 800,000.
Stalingrad marked the farthest extent of
German advance into the Soviet Union.
12. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
20 Dec 2009 12:36:10 PM

General von Paulus surrenders, commenting that.
"I have no intention of shooting myself, for
that Austrian corporal".

Paulus survives World War II, after the war
returning from Russia, he lives out the rest of his life in the DDR / East Germany
13. Anonymous says:
25 Feb 2010 11:18:24 AM

if you liked this, read Stalingrad Memories and Reassessments, by Joachim Wieder and Heinrich Graf Von Einsiedel (One of the officers in the battle for Stalingrad)
14. Anonymous says:
22 Jun 2010 11:39:08 PM

they went halfway to moscow in four weeks, it was still summer!then,hitler splits the main thrust!!! then six weeks later he sends them all back towards moscow and by that time the mud and winter and 100,000 siberian troops were in the way!what was hitler thinking and who was he really working for???anyways the japanese should have backed up germany by holding down all these winter troops and they didnt!!! they should have,especially knowing now that they were to get germanys full corporation when germany declared war on the us therefor helping japan when japan didnt really aide germany at all. none the less ,moscow should have fallen by mid september ,just think what things would have been changed if hitler would have shutup and let his generals conduct the war
15. Anonymous says:
23 Jun 2010 01:08:39 AM

what was the point of germany teaming up with japan, japan got the benefit of germany declaring war on the usa after japan attacked pearlharbor (and didnt tell germany they were going to do it) so germany most certainly stood by its word and backed up japan ....but...what????? did japan do to help germany in any major way .i can think of nothing!!! gee, would it have been asking too much of japan to send a few divisions into outer mongolia or wherever ,to hold up the 100,000 siberian troops, who then would have not been able to stop the nazis from overrunning moscow. japan had no problem helping itself, sending division after division after division all over the place... sure we will bathe in the nazis limelight... but dont ask us to help change any of the bulbs that blow out
16. Anonymous says:
29 Jul 2010 08:44:44 PM

if germany had stayed allied with russia... like they did when they both invaded poland... and never invaded russia...then germany would have been able to focus all that manpower and weaponry against england and the middle east...they would have severely crushed the allies... who would have not been able to get a foothold upon the european continent...and they would have captured the oil fields... germany would possibly only have been beaten when the usa invented the a bomb
17. Viper says:
5 Dec 2010 12:59:38 PM

This is one of the best wars every fought.
Its my favorite battle to hear about.
Stalingrad rocks.
18. Commenter identity confirmed Bill says:
18 Dec 2010 01:14:09 PM


The battle of Stalingrad, now named Volograd
located in Southwest Russia was fought from
July 1942 to Feb. 1943.
Estimates of combined casualaties are over
2,000,000. For Nazi Germany, the outcome was disastrous from that time on, the Red Army went on the offensive, and started to push the Germans back toward Berlin.

"If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Gronzy
then I must end this war."

-Adolf Hitler-

Stalingrad was an important transport route
its capture would prevent troops, equipment
and supplies to transport north.

Its capture would secure the Western flanks
of the German armies advance into the oil
fields, cutting off Stalin's supply of oil
and the fact that the city was named after the Soviet dictator, made the capture of Stalingrad,both an ideological and propganda


The surrender of the 6th Army was a turning
point on the Eastern front, for the first time the Germans were stopped and the Red
Army started its advance towards Berlin.

91,000 German soldiers were captured and marched into Soviet captivity. About 27,000 died within a few weeks, and thousands were sent to labor camps throughout the USSR, where most died from disease, cold, overwork starvation and mistreatment.


It wasn't until 1955 that the last survivors
were returned to West Germany.

"There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads to fortune
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
It is bound in the shallows and in miseries"

Julius Caesar

-William Shakespeare-

19. Anonymous says:
25 Aug 2011 02:59:44 PM

me happy all boys come home
20. Anonymous says:
11 Oct 2011 04:39:02 PM

this site was really helpful with a report i had to do thanks!!! :D
21. Curtis James Jackson III says:
30 Apr 2012 07:07:47 AM

hitler sucks
22. tim williams says:
22 Oct 2012 05:13:39 PM

What happens when a corporal runs the country and the wars.
23. Anonymous says:
15 Feb 2013 03:24:28 PM

it is a bit irritating that the author is always referring to the Russians as "soviets" while he is not speaking of "Nazi-Germany" but of "Germany" constantly.
24. Anonymous says:
14 Mar 2013 05:40:44 AM

Germany was not prepared for war with the USSR. The USSR was not prepared for war with Germany.
25. Anonymous says:
14 Jul 2013 03:49:16 PM

I know one of the Romanian survivors who came home from Siberia after the war! His grandson is my best friend, his story are incredible.
26. Alex Apple says:
31 Jan 2014 08:10:29 AM

"appointed Marshal Andrey Yeryomenko on 1 Aug 1942"
Andrey Yeryomenko became a Marshal in 1955. In Aug. 1942 he was in a rank of General Colonel.
27. Commenter identity confirmed C. Peter Chen says:
31 Jan 2014 08:27:05 PM

Alex Apple: Thank you for pointing this out, the mistake has been corrected!
28. Anonymous says:
11 Nov 2014 09:09:45 AM

Neither side was properly prepared for the devastation that occurred. Hitler assumed he could eliminate the Soviets before winter came...he was horribly wrong. This battle is unmistakably the turning point of the war in the eastern theatre. Hitler never won another major battle after the fall of the 6th at Stalingrad. The winter had a major hand in defeating the Nazis. As well as the "No steps back protocol." It paved the way for D-Day as well...Americans are very quick to claim the deciding victory of WWII but it wouldn't have even been thought of without Stalingrad.
29. leon thompson says:
14 Nov 2014 10:36:22 PM

FIRSTLY : Goring shouldve permitted a full scale invasion of Britain they wouldve succeeded with ease rather than protracting what can only be best described as a 'long term ineffective bombing operation' wasting arms and materials.

result : subdued Great Britain permanently and ended any future offensives against Germany in europe and therefore Churchill would likely have become a puppet and Britain's forces would eventually have been either conscripted or volunteered into the Werhmacht or as other overrun nations the elite WAFFEN SS divisions.

result : America would less likely have entered the war as Roosevelt was already fearful of a powerful and successful Germany and their super-power alliance -Japan would never felt the need to attack Pearl harbour as Germany and Japan together would maintain air/sea superiority since America were always going to be passive regardless of Britain's fate only helping Her by giving minimal supply of arms and munitions at a price! (so much for friends) even less lkely to enter the war if the Germans had complete control of British territory since the fear of the Fatherland had gone global and noone wanted to oppose Germany - this was clearly demonstrated when Hitler blatantly breached the Treaty of Versailles in front of the world by not only increasing his armies population and mass production of arms but also invading his neighbours.

SECONDLY : had Hitler not hesitated and become complacent against an ill-prepared USSR , he wouldve easily overtaken Moscow knocked out political power within weeks leaving every other city and fortress utterly vulnerable and disorganised against his seasoned elite divisions and currently superior weapons.

Germany was so close to global power and they probably wouldve run it better than every corrupt government today because Hitler's long term plans for the nations after complete subjection was achieved, was to make all their territories utterly properous!!!

30. James Mulligan says:
9 Sep 2015 08:41:04 PM

First off,

let me just say that Hitler was incompetent, he was an emotion driven gambler who got lucky on his rise to power. The German people were disgusted by the treaty of Versailles and the unfairness that the European nations were imposing upon them. It sucks being stuck with the reputation as the 'bad guy' especially when that's not what your intentions were (they never are, right?).
Anyway, Hitler took advantage of this disgust, redirected it to an age old scapegoat: the jews.
Jewish religion is ridiculous, but that's religion in general, the jewish people are not particularly evil, certainly not the reason for all of Germanys hardships, in fact, HOW THE HELL WAS THIS MINORITY RESPONSIBLE FOR SO MUCH GREIF? What are they supposed to be, some sort of super intelligent puppet masters? (actually, Albert Einstein was jewish) There's no logic involved in persecuting the jews, just unchecked emotion. Hitlers world view and master race ideology sounded nice but was simply un true, there is no master race. It was a pleasant fantasy that the German people got sucked into (you are better than the rest of the world, you deserve more than the rest of the world, the British, French, Americans, Slavic peoples, Arabs, Africans, Asians, Spanish, latin peoples, and finally, the jews are all lesser peoples, who will serve us - the master race- once we exert our dominance over the globe. Which will be easy, because we're better than them.

The German people are very hard working, were at the time, and still are leaders in technology, and have a tradition of military excellence and culture that go back before WWI, even before Germany became a country Prussians were known for Military tradition.

Germany also had a large population that was growing faster than other European populations. About 80 million.

All these traits were unfortunately taken advantage of by Adolf Hitler and National Socialism, a.k.a fascism.

All for naught though, No way was Nazi Germany came close to taking the globe, it may have looked like that at times, but they were outnumbered the entire time. Too many enemies, too antagonistic, and led by a man who was nothing brilliant, was able to fire up peoples emotions with his heartfelt (but condemning and hateful) speeches, by the way, Hitler was on Amphetamines for most of those speaches, and his accomplices were generally 'Yes men' people who were lost in life before this, and found fraternity and direction in the Nazi party.

It's understandable how the seduction occured.

But the Nazi doctrine was simply untrue and prooved to be a bit of an Achilles heel at times, Hitler thought that Soviet Russia would be Easy to take, along with the rest of the world, because those peoples were inferior. apparently they were not.
Nicola Tesla was Serbian by the way, just pointing this out because Nazi doctrine beleived Serbs to be quite stupid. Also, Gödel was Jewish.

If Hitler did focus more in the war, like focus on one enemy at a time instead of kicking all the hornets nests, or if he relinquished power to his more competent and professional generals the war could've lasted much longer, and who knows, maybe ended in treaty with Germany keeping France and lots of other captured territory. but no way could they have won the war. The Soviets once mobilized were stronger than Germany, the Americans once mobilized were stronger than Germany.

Germany came prepared for the war, which payed off big time because no one else was. but after their forces were horribly squandered in Russia it was just a matter of time.
Those forces they squandered, by the way were humans, i'm sure we're all aware, but i think it deserves more attention; each and every one of the soldiers that died in that war was an individual, with many many civilians to boot. Even if Nazi Germany hadn't lost the war, millions would still have perished.

There are better ways to spread your ideas.

31. Javal Patel says:
20 Dec 2015 03:12:11 PM

I need to know that the hitler was one of the greatest attacker the why did he Defeat in stalingrad battle So how did Josef stalin defend him greatly
32. Udit Barman says:
11 Sep 2016 01:14:04 AM

leon thompson here is a Nazi. he just commented
LANG LEBE DAS DRITTE REICH which means LONG LIVE THE THIRD REICH. I have nothing but hatred towards the likes of you genocide supporters !!!
33. ernst says:
21 Feb 2017 10:41:20 PM

I am trying to get the German names of the persons that died in the battle
34. Ernst Sigl says:
23 Feb 2017 07:49:34 AM

Am looking for a reference of a German Soldier called Josef Sigl. Our family did not know where in fact he did die in battle or somwhere else. He was drawn into the army even though he was older with 4 children at home. He is my Grandfather. Thanks
35. Anonymous says:
2 Mar 2017 10:13:44 AM

Hindsight is 20/20
36. Erwin says:
16 Aug 2017 01:36:50 AM

An Ernst Siegl: diesen Sommer wurde in den alten Stellungen bei Stalingrad ein Goeffel beschriftet mit "Sigl" gefunden.

Dabe wurden keine sterblichen ueberreste des Soldaten festgestellt, wobei die Gegend schlecht erkundet wurde.

Ihr Grossvater - welche Einheit war er und ob ueberhaupt in der 6. Armee bei Stalingrad?

Falls Sie diese Nachricht lesen, koennen sie mich unter dim66@mail.ru erreichen.


37. Anonymous says:
15 Nov 2017 01:05:12 PM

My grandfather was a corporal in the US army. He told me a story as a child that he and a group of American soldiers took a prisoner across Russian and delivered him to Stalin. This was because the prisoner had been an officer at Stalingrad and no Russian officer was willing to take possession of him (they all feared what would happen if he escaped or died before being delivered). His stories were mostly about the difficulty of crossing Russia ... he told me the officers name but this was years ago and I have forgotten. I have not been able to find any historical references to this - is anyone familiar?
38. John Wayne Lives says:
7 Nov 2019 05:49:38 AM

Wow, I bet your grandfather saw alot. The battlegrounds and people that fought in them. My grandfather fought the Japanese and he gave me a " jap" rifle he got from one of the islands.
39. sayan siberia says:
16 Oct 2020 04:24:34 AM

commentator 37. Don't lie. No American soldier ever met Stalin. This is ridiculous.
40. Dave Westerlund age 88 says:
14 Dec 2022 01:19:24 PM

When did Paulus 1st discuss surrender terms w/Russia? He sure was treated nicely after the surrender, and to his death years later in East Germany. I've read Paulus advised Hitler not to break out to meet Manstein in late December.

Working in China 1995 I met a German working in China, that had been captured on the Eastern Front by Russia. Regretfully, he only spoke German/ Chinese and I only English. My Chinese interpreter (and I) were in a hurry, so could not interview him. Maybe many Germans did not die before the end of WWII, but stayed in Russia or China???
41. Anonymous says:
19 Jan 2023 09:21:44 PM

Wow..! This is a riveting article.
I found it very interesting. I’m an old guy and most of my reading is about WWII. Thank you for time and effort in making this available .

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» Budanova, Yekaterina
» Chuikov, Vasily
» Golikov, Filipp
» Heitz, Walter
» Hoth, Hermann
» Jány, Gusztáv
» Kuznetsov, Vasily
» Litvyak, Lydia
» Manstein, Erich
» Novikov, Alexander
» Paulus, Friedrich
» Rokossovsky, Konstantin
» Rotmistrov, Pavel
» Rybalko, Pavel
» Vasilevsky, Aleksandr
» Vatutin, Nikolai
» Weichs, Maximilian
» Zhukov, Georgy

» Russia

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A building burning during the Battle of Stalingrad in Southern Russia, 21 Jun 1942A German Army company commander and a platoon commander in discussion, Stalingrad, Russia, 21 Jun 1942
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