Contributor: C. Peter Chen
This article refers to the entire Kongo-class; it is not about an individual vessel.
ww2dbaseThe Kongo-class ships, originally classified as battlecruisers, were designed by the British firm Vickers-Armstrong, and the ships in this class were essentially upgraded versions of the British battlecruiser Lion. Sir George Thurston was the head of the engineering team at Vickers-Armstrong responsible for this project. The first ship of the class, Kongo, was built in the United Kingdom, and was the last capital ship to be built outside of Japan. While Hiei, the second ship in the class, was built in Japan, the third ship, Haruna, was the first to be done with all Japanese-made parts. The fourth ship, Kirishima, was also built with all Japanese-made parts.
ww2dbaseAs battlecruisers, these four ships of the Kongo-class carried relatively light protection in terms of armor, but this characteristic also made them the fastest Japanese capital ships at the time at the maximum speed of 27.5 knots. They were originally planned to carry 12-inch guns, just as contemporary British battlecruisers, but ultimately the design's armament was upgraded to 14-inch guns, making them the largest gun platforms afloat at the time. The decision to upgrade the primary guns was partially because the Japanese had learned that the British battlecruiser Lion was to carry 13.5-inch guns, and they wished to out-do the Royal Navy. Secondary armament of the Kongo-class ships were 16 6-inch guns in casements. The numerous secondary guns reflected the Japanese concern for destroyer attacks on capital ships. Like other Japanese heavy ships, but unlike ships of other navies, Kongo-class battlecruisers were equipped with submerged torpedo tubes.
ww2dbaseThe Kongo-class ships took on major modernization efforts during the inter-war years that resulted them being classified as battleships. Some of the upgrades done include additional armor, removal of torpedo tubes, replacement of boilers (fewer but more powerful), and addition of anti-aircraft weapons. Although now classified as battleships, compared to other battleships, they were considered lightly armed and lightly armored. This was partly due to their battlecruiser origins and partly due to their age.
ww2dbaseAt the beginning of the Pacific War, Kongo and Haruna covered the invasions at Malaya and the Philippine Islands, and then they moved on with the invasion fleet to Java, providing distant cover. Meanwhile, Hiei and Kirishima covered the carrier force. In Mar-Apr 1942, all four ships gathered to escort the carrier force during the major raid into the Indian Ocean; this was the only time during WW2 that all four ships of the Kongo-class served together. During the Battle of Midway, Kongo and Hiei sailed with the invasion force, with Haruna emerging from the battle lightly damaged. All four ships were active in the Solomon Islands, participating in major battles such as Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz and performing major bombardment raids on American positions such as Henderson Field at Guadalcanal. All four ships were sunk during WW2. Hiei was sunk by aircraft, and Kirishima by USS Washington's guns. The remaining two ships sank later. Kongo was attacked by submarine USS Sealion II and sank after being struck by torpedoes, and Haruna sank in shallow water near the end of the war when she was attacked by American dive bombers.
ww2dbaseSource: Imperial Japanese Navy Battleships 1941-45.
Last Major Revision: Sep 2008
Kongo-class Battleship Interactive Map
Kongo-class Battleship Operational Timeline
|19 Apr 1915||Haruna was commissioned into service.|
|19 Apr 1915||Kirishima was commissioned into service.|
|12 Apr 1923||Crown Prince Hirohito departed Japan aboard battleship Kongo.|
|27 Apr 1923||Crown Prince Hirohito boarded battleship Kongo at Kirun (now Keelung), Taiwan and departed for Japan.|
|1 May 1923||Crown Prince Hirohito arrived at Yokosuka, Japan aboard battleship Kongo.|
|21 Oct 1938||Kirishima launched a E8N1 Type 95 floatplane and photographed HMS Birmingham off Xiamen, China.|
|10 Dec 1941||Japanese submarine I-58 spotted British battleship HMS Prince of Wales and battlecruiser HMS Repulse off British Malaya, launched five torpedoes, but all of them missed; beginning at 1117 hours, Japanese aircraft began to attack. Overwhelmed, HMS Repulse was sunk at 1233 hours (513 killed), followed by HMS Prince of Wales at 1318 hours (327 killed); destroyers HMS Electra, HMS Express, and HMS Vampire rescued 1,862 survivors. On land, the British commanders dispatched the 1st Battalion of the 14th Punjab Regiment and the 2nd Battalion of the 1st Gurkha Rifles regiment to Changlun and Asun in northern British Malaya to counter the Japanese advance; contact was made at Changlun at 2100 hours, where two Japanese tanks were destroyed before the Punjabi troops fell back toward Asun.|
|24 Aug 1942||Kumano screened the carrier Ryujo and the battleship Kirishima in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons and against an attack from B-17 bombers.|
|12 Nov 1942||Destroyer Yukikaze engaged with USS Cushing and USS Laffey during the First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, and then escorted the crippled battleship Hiei. Meanwhile, Yugure picked up Hiei survivors 5 miles northwest of Savo Island.|
|13 Nov 1942||Damaged in the naval battle before dawn, Hiei struggled to return to base. After persistent attacks by aircraft attacks, it was decided that she was to be scuttled. After all men were taken off, she was scuttled by torpedoes north of Savo Island in the Solomon Islands. She became the first Japanese battleship to be lost in combat.|
|15 Nov 1942||US battleship Washington sank Japanese battleship Kirishima by gunfire off Savo Island in the Solomon Islands.|
|19 Mar 1943||Kongo departed Sasebo, Japan for the West Inland Sea, with Yugure and Hagikaze in escort.|
|20 Mar 1943||Kongo arrived at the West Inland Sea, with Yugure and Hagikaze in escort.|
|14 Jul 1945||American battleships USS South Dakota, USS Indiana, and USS Massachusetts and escorting destroyers bombarded Kamaishi, Honshu, Japan; the primary target was the Kamaishi Works of the Japan Iron Company, but several destroyers shells overshot the target and hit the town, killing many civilians; battleship shells were more accurate, destroying about 65% of the industrial complex, but they also killed many civilians; this was the first time the Japanese home islands were subjected to naval bombardment. To the north, the sinking of 6 warships and 37 steamers on the ferry route between Honshu and Hokkaido islands effectively cut off the latter from the rest of the home islands. At Kure in southern Japan, aircraft of US Navy TF 38 damaged carrier Amagi, carrier Katsuragi, and battleship Haruna; at Misawa in northern Japan, G4M bombers that were assigned to partake the planned Operation Ken, which sought to deliver 300 suicide commandos to the Mariana Islands, were destroyed (the American would not know of Operation Ken until after the war). The carriers were escorted by a large naval force that included battleship USS Missouri. Far to the south, the USAAF XXI Bomber Command canceled a long-range P-51 raid from Iwo Jima to attack Meiji and Kagamigahara near Nagoya due to poor weather.|
|24 Jul 1945||British TF 37 launched 416 sorties, 261 of which were sent against the Japanese home islands and 155 were for defensive patrols; escort carrier Kaiyo was damaged by British carrier planes. On the same day, American TF 38 launched 600 aircraft against Kure, Nagoya, Osaka, and Miho, sinking battleship-carrier Hyuga, heavy cruiser Tone, and target ship Settsu, and damaging carrier Ryuho, carrier Amagi, battleship-carrier Ise, battleship Haruna, heavy cruiser Aoba, light cruiser Oyodo, transport Kiyokawa Maru; the Aichi aircraft factories at Nagoya were seriously damaged.|
|28 Jul 1945||137 American P-47 aircraft based in Ie Shima, Okinawa, Japan attacked targest in Kyushu, Japan. On the same day, 471 B-29 bombers attacked smaller Japanese cities in the home islands with incendiary bombs. Finally, from the sea, US Navy carrier aircraft struck various Inland Sea ports between Nagoya and northern Kyushu, sinking battleship Haruna, battleship-carrier Ise, heavy cruiser Aoba (in shallow water), and light cruiser Oyodo, and damaging carrier Katsuragi, carrier Hosho, and already beached battleship Settsu.|
|31 Jan 2019||Research Vessel Petrel, operated by the firm Vulcan, conducted a visual inspection of a wreck under more than 3,200 feet of water. The wreck was initially discovered by sonar in 2018. The images taken by Petrel allowed researchers to positively identify the wreck as the battleship Hiei.|
Did you enjoy this article or find this article helpful? If so, please consider supporting us on Patreon. Even $1 per month will go a long way! Thank you.
Share this article with your friends:
Stay updated with WW2DB:
Visitor Submitted Comments
All visitor submitted comments are opinions of those making the submissions and do not reflect views of WW2DB.
- » 1,136 biographies
- » 336 events
- » 43,320 timeline entries
- » 1,235 ships
- » 349 aircraft models
- » 207 vehicle models
- » 372 weapon models
- » 123 historical documents
- » 258 facilities
- » 469 book reviews
- » 28,325 photos
- » 430 maps