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26 Oct 1943

French Indochina
  • USAAF 14th Air Force deployed naval mines at the entrance of Haiphong harbor in northern French Indochina. US Navy Sino-American Special Technical Cooperative Organization (SACO) intelligence officers Raymond Kotrla, Ralph DuBois, and Duncan McCann were aboard to provide naval expertise. As they departed, the lead ship of a Japanese convoy struck a mine, blocking the harbor entrance for the rest of the war. The remainder of the convoy fled toward Hainan island, China to the east, but they would be discovered by a second wave of B-24 bombers, which sank six of the ships. ww2dbase [Haiphong, Tonkin | CPC]
28 Oct 1943

French Indochina
  • Japanese Kempeitei agents extended protection to Tran Trong Kim in Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina, who was being investigated by French authorities. ww2dbase [Tran Trong Kim | Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
11 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • The Dai Viet (Nationalist Party of Greater Vietnam) held a demonstration in Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina in support for the Vietnamese royal government and for an independent Vietnam. In private, the Dai Viet leadership discussed the possibility of coup as they hear rumors of a Japanese surrender, but they could not come to a concensus on its execution. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
13 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • The Indochinese Communist Party held a meeting in Tan Trao northwest of Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina. The meeting was presided over by Ho Chi Minh. The Communists decided to fight the imminent return of the French, and that they would attempt to befriend US and USSR, possibly gaining their support against the French. ww2dbase [Trao, Tonkin | CPC]
16 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • The Dai Viet (Nationalist Party of Greater Vietnam) leadership met, but again failed to come up with a concensus on how to stop the communist Viet Minh. Meanwhile, the National People's Congress also met in Tan Trao about 60 kilometers northwest of Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina; the delegates elected Ho Chi Minh the chairman of the Liberation Committee. ww2dbase [Tan Trao, Tonkin | CPC]
17 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • The Vietnam General Association of Government Employees convened a meeting in front of the Hanoi Opera House in Tonkin, French Indochina, attracting 20,000 people. During the meeting, troops loyal to the Dai Viet marched into Hanoi, but their leadership did not order them to seize government centers. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
  • Flood waters breached dikes along the Red River north of Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina. The flood waters would overcome over a third of Tonkin's rice harvest this fall, but it also bogged down Japanese troops in the area as well as incoming Chinese occupation troops, thus giving local nationalist fighters an advantage. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
19 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • In Tonkin, French Indochina, tens of thousands of villagers in support of the Viet Minh marched from the countrysides into Hanoi. Amongst them was an armed unit of Viet Minh which dispersed the local police while Japanese forces refrained from interference. By 1100 hours, the crowd grew to about 200,000. Shortly after, the Viet Minh took over the Viceroy's Palace. A number of Japanese tanks approached with plans to maintain peace, but they departed after some negotiations. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
20 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • In Thai Nguyen, Tonkin, French Indochina, communist leader Vo Nguyen Giap disrupted a previously peaceful Vietnamese-Japanese transfer of power negotiation by ordering his Viet Minh troops to fire on the Japanese personnel. The Japanese fell back into the building and became besieged. Meanwhile, to the south in Hanoi, the Viet Minh began to consolidate its recently gained power over Hanoi by massacring Dai Viet supporters and broadcasting pro-communist/anti-French propaganda. ww2dbase [Thai Nguyen, Tonkin | CPC]
  • Chinese occupation troops began moving into Tonkin, French Indochina. They met some resistance from Viet Minh personnel in the upper Red River region. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
22 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • French Commissioner Pierre Messmer for Tonkin, French Indochina was parachuted north of Hanoi, but was captured by Viet Minh troops; he would soon be rescued by Chinese troops. Meanwhile, Jean Sainteny, another French colonial administrator, flew into Hanoi aboard an American aircraft from Chongqing, China. On the same day, Commissioner Jean CĂ©dile for Cochinchine was parachuted 85 kilometers northwest of Saigon, and was captured and humiliated by local farmers; he and his team was rescued by Japanese troops. Finally, in Thai Nguyen, Tonkin, the Japanese personnel which had been previously besieged by Viet Minh were freed after the communists withdrew to handle the arrival of French colonial administrators. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
25 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • In Tonkin, French Indochina, the Viet Minh announced all war-time armed anti-Japanese resistance groups must join the Vietnam Libration Army. In Saigon, Cochinchina, French Indochina, the Viet Minh took control of the city after arresting the Imperial Delegate Nguyen Van Sam. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
26 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • Ho Chi Minh arrived in Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina for the first time. He invited US OSS Major Archimedes Patti to lunch in an attempt to court US support for Vietnamese independence. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
27 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • Ho Chi Minh convened his first cabinet meeting in Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina. The group agreed that they would declare Vietnamese independence on 2 Sep 1945. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
28 Aug 1945

French Indochina
  • The Viet Minh issued an order that required permits for all outdoor meetings or armed training exercises. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
2 Sep 1945

French Indochina
  • Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam at the Botanic Gardens in Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina. In the speech, he called on the Allies to recognize the new country. He also noted that, with or without Allied recognition, he would fight against French colonialism. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | AC, CPC]
8 Sep 1945

French Indochina
  • The newly founded Democratic Republic of Vietnam agreed on the formation of a 300-member legislative branch of the government, National People's Assembly. All citizens 18 years of age or older, regardless of gender, would be allowed to vote and to run for a seat. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
14 Sep 1945

French Indochina
  • General Lu Han, commanding officer of Chinese occupation force in northern French Indochina, arrived in Hanoi, Tonkin by aircraft and established his headquarters at the Governor General's Palace. One of Lu's first orders was to summon Ho Chi Minh for a meeting, planning for the maintenance of peace. Fearful that the Chinese would buy up all the Vietnamese grain with over-valued Chinese currency, Ho pledged that he would ensure ample deliveries of grain to the Chinese occupation force, thus eliminating Chinese purchases. ww2dbase [Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
16 Sep 1945

French Indochina
  • The Viet Minh began the two-week long Gold Week fundraising event in northern French Indochina during which patriotic citizens donated jewelry, gold leaf, and other previous items to the Viet Minh, which had been burdened with feeding the Chinese occupation force in Tonkin. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
20 Sep 1945

French Indochina
22 Sep 1945

French Indochina
  • General Lu Han, commanding officer of the Chinese occupation force in northern French Indochina, assured Ho Chi Minh that he had no intention of declaring martial law (as the British had in Saigon on 19 Sep 1945) as long as order was maintained in the northern region. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
25 Sep 1945

Photo(s) dated 25 Sep 1945
Lu Han in Hanoi, French Indochina, late Sep 1945
28 Sep 1945

French Indochina
  • Chinese General Lu Han accepted the surrender of Japanese 38th Army at Hanoi, French Indochina. The French delegation boycotted the ceremony due to the Chinese-Vietnamese joint attempt to place the French delegation far from the main ceremonies during the planning process. ww2dbase [Lu Han | Japan's Surrender | Hanoi, Tonkin | CPC]
Photo(s) dated 28 Sep 1945
Lieutenant General Lu Han at the Japanese surrender ceremony for northern French Indochina in Hanoi, 28 Sep 1945Lieutenant General Yuitsu Tsuchihashi at the Japanese surrender ceremony at Hanoi, French Indochina, 28 Sep 1945
4 Oct 1945

French Indochina
18 Oct 1945

French Indochina
  • Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh wrote a letter to US President Harry Truman and Chinese Chairman Chiang Kaishek, seeking support for Vietnam as an independent nation on the world stage. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
23 Oct 1945

French Indochina
  • Under Chinese pressure to allow non-Communist representation in his government, Ho Chi Minh brokered a deal between the Viet Minh and Vietnamese Revolutionary Alliance (Dong Minh Hoi). Within the next two months, Ho would make similar friendly moves with the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD). The various parties would quarrel once again before long, however. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
9 Nov 1945

French Indochina
  • The Democratic Republic of Vietnam provisional government released a draft of the constitution that it had been working on. Many newspapers would publish its content in the following few weeks. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
11 Nov 1945

French Indochina
  • Ho Chi Minh publicly dissolved the Indochinese Communist Party to appease the demands coming from China and the United States. It would still exist in secret, however. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
20 Apr 1946

French Indochina
  • An estimated 49,000 Japanese deserters were in the ranks of the Viet Minh in northern Vietnam at this time. ww2dbase [Tonkin | CPC]
23 Nov 1946

French Indochina
  • French warships bombarded the port of Haiphong, French Indo-China, forcing the communist Viet Minh to agree to a cease fire. ww2dbase [Haiphong, Tonkin | AC]

Timeline Section Founder: Thomas Houlihan
Contributors: Alan Chanter, C. Peter Chen, Thomas Houlihan, Hugh Martyr, David Stubblebine
Special Thanks: Rory Curtis

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