122 mm Corps Gun M1931/37 (A-19) Field Gun
|Country of Origin||Russia|
|Barrel Length||5,600.000 mm|
|Ammunition Weight||24.90 kg|
|Rate of Fire||3 rounds/min|
|Muzzle Velocity||800 m/s|
Contributor: C. Peter Chenww2dbaseThe 122 mm Corps Gun M1931-37 (A-19) field guns were devleoped by F. F. Petrov of the Russian No. 172 Plant design bureau between 1937 and 1938 by mating the existing M1931 field gun barrels with split trail carriages of the recently completed 152 mm Howitzer M1917 field guns (which was also designed by F. F. Petrov's team). The prototype was tested in Sep and Oct 1938, and it was proven to have greater mobility and stability than the predecessors designed in 1931. The shields provided by the new carriages also provided some protection for gun crews from small arms fire. It was accepted for service on 29 Apr 1939, and production began soon afterwards. They first saw combat during the Nomonhan Incident (Battle of Khalkhin Gol) with the Japanese, and as the Winter War began, they were also seen in Finland. By the time the Russo-German war began, about 1,236 guns were in use by the Russian Army and 21 in the Russian Navy. Against the Germans, they tended to be used as indirect fire instruments against troop concentrations or fortifications. Though they had slow rate of traverse, they were equipped with armor piercing shells so that they could act in anti-tank roles should the need arise; though rather ineffective, these 122-millimeter guns were some of the few weapons in the Russian arsenal that could penetrate the armor of German tanks before 1943. Their armor penetration capabilities were noted, and the design later served as the foundation for the tank guns used by IS-2 and IS-3 heavy tanks.
In the opening phases of the Russo-German war, 424 M1931-37 field guns and their M1931 predecessors were captured by the rapidly advancing German forces. The German Army used them under the designations of M1931/37 as 12,2 cm K.390/2(r) and M1931 as 12,2 cm K.390/1(r), respectively, and the German munitions industry manufactured shells specifically for these guns. They were used both in the field as well as costal defense guns.
Finland captured 25 of these guns in 1941 and similarly deployed them into service; the Finnish designation for them was 122 K/31 (same designation for both M1931 and M1931-37 models). In Finnish service, due to the lack of artillery tractors, they were mostly used in stationary coastal defense fortifications. They remained in use through the 1980s, had their barrels replaced, and continued to serve until 2007.
In 1944, a few of the 122 mm Corps Gun M1931-37 field guns were given to Polish forces in the war against Germany. They remained in Polish service, and by 1952 63 of them remained in active service. They remained in Polish service until 2004.
78 guns were given to forces in Yugoslavia during WW2, and at least 100 guns were given to Syria and Egypt after the war.
Production of 122 mm Corps Gun M1931-37 (A-19) field guns lasted from 1939 until 1946. Production locations and figures were as follows.
|Location||Barrikady Plant, Stalingrad||Barrikady Plant, Stalingrad||Barrikady Plant, Stalingrad and No. 172 Plant||No. 172 Plant||No. 172 Plant||No. 172 Plant||No. 172 Plant||No. 172 Plant|
* The 256 figure in 1939 included both M1931 and M1931-37 designs; subsequent production figure only included the new M1931-37 design. In total, 2,577 units were built between 1939 and 1946; this figure did not include vehicle-mounted models of this gun.
Source: Wikipedia. ww2dbase
Last Major Revision: May 2009
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James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy, 23 Feb 1945