Editor's Note: The following content is a transcription of a period document or a collection of period statistics. It may be incomplete, inaccurate, or biased. The reader may not wish to take the content as factual.15 Sep 1932
ww2dbaseJapan recognizes the establishment of a free and independent Manchoukuo in accordance with the free will of its inhabitants. Manchukuo has declared its intention of abiding by all international agreements pledged by the Republic of China. The government of Japan and the government of Manchukuo have established a perpetual friendly and neighborly relationship, mutually guaranteeing each other's sovereignty. For the peace of East Asia:
1. Manchukuo, insofar as no future Japan-Manchukuo treaties to the contrary, respects the rights of Japanese government, government officials, and private citizens within the borders of Manchukuo.
2. Japan and Manchukuo pledge to cooperate in the maintenance of mutual peaceful existence by banding against common outside threats. The Japanese military forces are to be stationed in Manchukuo to this end.
This protocol is to be effective immediately upon signing.
This protocol is written in Japanese and Chinese; should there be any differences between the two documents due to translation issues, the document written in the Japanese language shall be considered the original.
Evidenced by fully authorized representatives of each government with signature and seal.
Signed on 15 September of the 7th Year of Showa, also 15 September of the 1st Year of Datong, at Xinjing.
[Signed with seal] Zheng Xiaoxu
Prime Minister of Manchoukuo
[Signed with seal] Nobuyoshi Muto
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Japan ww2dbase
C. Peter Chen
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Winston Churchill, 1935