×
Home Intro People Events Equipment Places Maps Books Photos Videos Other Reference FAQ About
     

World War II Database

Establishment of Manchukuo file photo [23017]

Battle of Harbin and Establishment of Manchukuo

25 Jan 1932 - 4 Feb 1932

Contributor:

ww2dbaseBy Jan 1932, the Japanese had established military control over northeastern China (Manchuria). To appease the Chinese population, the Japanese established a number of collaborationist regime in the area to nominally govern the region, one of which being the Jilin Army under General Xi Qia. Meanwhile, defeated at Qiqihar and driven out of the provinces of Heilongjiang and Nenjiang, China, General Ma Zhanshan continued to resist. Japanese Colonel Kenji Doihara attempted to persuade Ma to cease his resistance and join the Japanese. Not meeting success, Doihara ordered Xi Qia to attack Ma's forces based at the city of Hailun; it was Doihara's wish to use Japanese troops as little as possible to limit the appearance of Japanese aggression. En route, Xi Qia's forces was attacked by the combined forces of Ma and General Ding Chao on 25 Jan 1932, causing serious casualties. On 28 Jan, Ding captured the city of Harbin, taking it from a pro-Japanese Chinese general. The Japanese 4th Brigade attempted to take Harbin, but the extremely cold temperatures made maneuvers difficult. It was not until 4 Feb that the Japanese troops closed in on Harbin. As the Japanese attacked, a well-coordinated aerial bombardment broke the morale of Ding's troops. Ding ordered a general retreat before the end of the day, taking his troops down the Songhua River toward the northeast. Ding's forces was effectively wiped out after this defeat.

ww2dbaseWith Ding neutralized, Doihara once again asked Ma to give up, offering a large sum of money as incentive. Ma did so on 14 Feb, and was rewarded by the Japanese by being able to retain his provincial governorship of Heilongjiang. On 27 Feb, Ding formally surrendered as well. The surrender of Ma and Ding marked the end of resistance in northeast China.

ww2dbaseEpilogue

ww2dbaseWith organized resistance effectively wiped out, on 18 Feb 1932, the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo ("The Manchu State") in northeastern China. The former Emperor of China (deposed 20 years prior), Puyi, was installed as its Chief Executive. The city of Changchun, renamed Xinjing, was the capital of Puyi's new nation that few nations in the world recognized outside of the later Axis powers and nations of the Soviet Union (which had a non-aggression treaty with Japan through 1945). On 25 Mar 1933, in addition to condemning Japan for hostilities in Shanghai, the League of Nations refused to recognize Manchukuo as a legitimate government. As a result, Japanese delegates walked out of the League of Nations. In 1934, Puyi was declared Emperor Kangde of Manchukuo. Despite the grand title, he would remain a puppet of the Japanese until the end of the war in 1945.

ww2dbaseSource: Wikipedia.

Last Major Update: Sep 2012

Battle of Harbin and Establishment of Manchukuo Timeline

25 Jan 1932 The forces of Ma Zhanshan and Ding Chao attacked the collaborationist forces of Xi Qia in Heilongjiang Province, China.
28 Jan 1932 Chinese General Ding Chao's troops captured Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China from collaborationist forces.
4 Feb 1932 Japanese troops captured Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.
14 Feb 1932 Chinese General Ma Zhanshan surrendered to the Japanese in Heilongjiang Province, China.
15 Feb 1932 The local Chinese naval commander in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China surrendered his 5 river gunboats to the Japanese.
18 Feb 1932 Japan established the puppet nation of Manchukuo in northeastern China.
19 Feb 1932 The League of Nations reviewed the facts regarding the Japanese violation of Chinese sovereignty, but it would fail to result in any action against Japanese aggression.
27 Feb 1932 Chinese General Ding Chao surrendered to the Japanese in Heilongjiang Province, China.
9 Mar 1932 Puyi was inaugurated as the Chief Executive of the puppet state of Manchukuo in northeastern China.
9 Mar 1932 Xi Qia was named the Director of Finance of the Japanese-sponsored puppet state of Manchukuo.
9 Mar 1932 Zheng Xiaoxu was named the Prime Minister of the puppet state of Manchukuo.
15 Sep 1932 Ambassador Nobuyoshi Muto and Prime Minister Zheng Xiaoxu signed the Japan-Manchukuo Protocol at the puppet state's capital Xinjing (Changchun, Jilin Province, China).

Photographs

A Japanese infantry platoon somewhere in Manchuria, date unknownJapanese troops at barracks, possibly in Harbin, Manchuria, circa late 1931
See all 7 photographs of Battle of Harbin and Establishment of Manchukuo



Did you enjoy this article? Please consider supporting us on Patreon. Even $1 per month will go a long way! Thank you.

Share this article with your friends:

 Facebook
 Reddit
 Twitter

Stay updated with WW2DB:

 RSS Feeds




Posting Your Comments on this Topic

Your Name
Your Email
 Your email will not be published
Comment Type
Your Comments
Security Code
 

 

Note: We hope that visitor conversations at WW2DB will be constructive and thought-provoking. Please refrain from using strong language. HTML tags are not allowed. Your IP address will be tracked even if you remain anonymous. WW2DB site administrators reserve the right to moderate, censor, and/or remove any comment. All comment submissions will become the property of WW2DB.

Change View
Desktop View

Search WW2DB & Partner Sites
More on Battle of Harbin and Establishment of Manchukuo
Participants:
» Puyi
» Xi Qia
» Doihara, Kenji
» Ma, Zhanshan
» Zang, Shiyi
» Zhang, Jinghui
» Zheng, Xiaoxu

Location:
» China

Battle of Harbin and Establishment of Manchukuo Photo Gallery
A Japanese infantry platoon somewhere in Manchuria, date unknownJapanese troops at barracks, possibly in Harbin, Manchuria, circa late 1931
See all 7 photographs of Battle of Harbin and Establishment of Manchukuo


Famous WW2 Quote
"All that silly talk about the advance of science and such leaves me cold. Give me peace and a retarded science."

Thomas Dodd, late 1945